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As part of ING Bank's project with the European Economic Congress in the first quarter of this year, journalists of the WNP.pl portal conducted 19 in-depth interviews with managers of Polish companies from various industries and two chambers of commerce (Scandinavian and Italian) operating in Poland.

The report, titled: "The Response of Polish Business to the Energy Shock. Prospects for energy investments" reflects the voice of business and the reaction of companies to the energy shock. We have also gathered suggestions for changes in energy investments.

 

Price shock and searching for energy independence

Russia's invasion of Ukraine and restrictions on Russian energy imports have led to an energy price shock in Europe. All Polish companies were affected by this situation, and some of them reacted proactively. Due to the energy "shields," especially for small businesses, the increase in energy prices varied widely across EU countries. The decisive factor was the size of the compa

Canadian Dollar Falters as USD/CAD Tests Key Support Amidst Rising Oil Prices and Economic Data

Some May Even Not Imagine How US Inflation (CPI Data) Can Affect Asian - Chinese Market And Forex Pairs With US Dollar Like USD/JPY And USD/CNH

ING Economics ING Economics 11.05.2022 13:54
All quiet in Asia ahead of US inflation In this article Macro outlook What to look out for: China and US inflation Source: shutterstock Macro outlook Global: The big story today is going to be the April US CPI release, and markets may be quite muted ahead of this. Our Chief US Economist has written about this in the context of the latest NFIB business survey, so please check out this link for more details. But to summarise, whatever happens tonight, he isn’t looking for US inflation to fall quickly. That may bring back concern about potentially more aggressive FOMC behaviour. In this vein, Loretta Mester yesterday suggested that if inflation wasn’t falling by the second half of the year, the FOMC may need to increase the pace of its tightening. US stocks managed to eke out some small gains yesterday after the big falls earlier this week. But trading was choppy, and it could have gone either way. We don’t read too much directional steer into this for Asia’s open today. G-10 FX continued to show USD support, but movements were not large. EURUSD drifted down to about 1.0530 from about 1.0560 yesterday. The AUD still looks pressured lower and is about 0.6937 as of writing. Other Asian FX was fairly muted, though note there is a BNM meeting today, so a “no-change” which is on the cards, could see the MYR softening further. Bond markets were also fairly muted. 2-year US Treasury yields edged up slightly, but the 10Y US Treasury bond yield drifted back under 3.0%. 10Y JGBs have been drifting higher – challenging the 0.25% level, and breaching it intraday, so we may be due an official response of sorts imminently.    China: April CPI and PPI inflation rates are expected to slow from March due to lower metal and coal prices and weak demand for consumer goods. We will probably see higher prices for pork and fertilizer. This set of data reflects slower economic growth resulting from the Covid-19 social distancing measures. Korea: The Jobless rate remained unchanged in April at 2.7% (vs the market consensus of 2.8%) for the third straight month, while the labour participation rate improved to 63.8% (vs 63.5% in March), indicating that the labour market continued on a recovery track. Reopening is supporting employment growth in service sectors such as retail sales, recreation, and transportation. Despite a gloomier outlook for manufacturing, employment in that sector posted a solid gain for the eighth straight month. However, one potential caveat to this month’s report was that the majority of the employment growth came from the older age group (60+) while the 30’s (supposedly the most productive group) lost the most jobs. President Yoon Seok Yeol’s party has proposed a supplementary budget plan to the government this morning. Although the size was in line with the market expectation of about KRW33tr, it is noted that the extra budget would not require additional bond issuance. More details will be released tomorrow. Read next: Stablecoins In Times Of Crypto Crash. What is Terra (UST)? A Deep Look Into Terra Altcoin. Terra - Leading Decentralised And Open-Source Public Blockchain Protocol | FXMAG.COM What to look out for: China and US inflation Korea unemployment (11 May) China CPI and PPI inflation (11 May) US CPI inflation (11 May) Philippines 1Q GDP (12 May) US PPI inflation and initial jobless claims (12 May) Malaysia GDP (13 May) Hong Kong GDP (13 May) US Michigan sentiment (13 May) TagsEmerging Markets Asia Pacific Asia Markets Asia Economics   Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Central Banks' Rates Outlook: Fed Treads Cautiously, ECB Prepares for Hike

Gas Price Has Increased As The Transportation Had Been Limited Because Of The Ukrainian War, NYMEX WTI Went Below $100 Yesterday, But The End Fuel Crisis And Supply Chain Issues May Be Far From Now | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 11.05.2022 15:01
Your daily roundup of commodities news and ING views Gas storage tank Energy Oil sold off with risk assets on Monday, but it failed to follow equities higher yesterday. Instead, downward pressure on the market continued, which saw NYMEX WTI settle below US$100/bbl. Growth concerns continue to weigh on commodities, and a stronger USD only adds further downward pressure to the complex. This weakness has continued in early trading this morning after the API reported that US crude oil inventories increased by 1.62MMbbls - the market was expecting a small draw. In addition, API numbers also showed an increase in refined product inventories. Gasoline and distillate fuel oil inventories increased by 823Mbbls and 662Mbbls respectively. If today’s EIA report shows similar numbers, it would be the first weekly increase for US gasoline inventories since late March and the first for distillates since early April. However, the middle distillate market is still very tight and so we would expect US heating oil cracks to remain well supported. In fact, middle distillate cracks around the world should remain well supported, given the tightness in the market and concerns over Russian gasoil exports. The EIA released its latest Short Term Energy Outlook yesterday. The report cut expectations for US oil production growth for 2022 from around 833Mbbls/d to 731Mbbls/d, which implies US oil output averaging 11.91MMbbls/d this year. However, for 2023, supply is expected to grow by 940Mbbls/d (largely unchanged from last month), which would see US output hitting a record 12.85MMbbls/d. Obviously, the biggest concern for the global oil market is around supply in the short to medium term, given the uncertainty over Russian supply. And the downward revisions to 2022 output estimates will do little to ease these concerns. European natural gas prices showed some strength yesterday. TTF rallied by more than 5%, settling close to EUR99/MWh. This strength came after Ukraine’s gas grid operator (GTSOU) declared force majeure on the transit of Russian gas through Sokhranivka, which accounts for about a third of Russian gas transited via Ukraine. GTSOU has said that it is not possible to continue operations through Sokhranivka due to Russia's military aggression in the region. GTSOU said that gas can be rerouted through Sudzha (another entry point), Gazprom has reportedly said that this is not technically possible. Dutch gas network operator, Gasunie has said that it has contracted a second FSRU (floating storage and regasification unit) for the next 5 years, which would allow it to regas LNG imports at Eemshaven in the north of Groningen. The FSRU is expected to arrive in the third quarter of this year, and along with another FSRU already contracted, would provide a total of 8bcm of regasification capacity at Eemshaven. This regasification capacity would exceed the roughly 6bcm of natural gas that the Netherlands imports from Russia every year. The big question though is if there is enough LNG supply to fully use this capacity, particularly with Germany also securing 4 FSRUs, with an annual capacity of as much as 29bcm. Some of this capacity in Germany is also expected to come into operation ahead of the next winter.   Metals Base metals continued to decline in London amid fragile market sentiment. Copper initially rallied but was unable to hold onto these gains at the close. Shanghai is going into the hardest phase of lockdowns, weighing heavily on sentiment as local authorities vow to bring the Covid wave under control at the community level by the end of this week. Meanwhile, the China Car Passenger Association (CAPM) confirmed that retail passenger vehicle sales plunged by 36% in April, its biggest monthly decline since March 2020. LME aluminium prices continue to fall and have largely ignored a steep decline in on-warrant stocks and a large number of cancelled warrants from Asia, signalling further declines. As of Tuesday, on-warrant stocks have fallen to a record low of 294kt, whilst total closing stocks dropped to 560kt - the lowest since 2005. Antaike has reported that China’s aluminium demand fell 5.5% YoY to 3.3mt last month (the biggest decline since March 2020), primarily impacted by the closure of auto producers due to Covid-related lockdowns. In contrast, the impact on Chinese supply has been rather limited so far, with operating capacity rising to 40.31mt by the end of April. As we also pointed out yesterday, Antaike also believes that the recent Covid outbreak has had a larger impact on demand than the early 2020 lockdowns. Agriculture Data from Brazil’s sugar industry group, UNICA show that sugar production in Center-South Brazil increased to 934kt over the 2nd half of April 2022 compared to only around 127kt over the first half of April as more mills started operations; although it is still significantly lower than the 1.52mt of sugar produced over the same period last season. Sugar cane crushing was down around 20% YoY to 23.8mt over the period with the sugar mix falling to 37.2% compared to 44.5% a year ago. Cumulative sugar production so far this season in CS-Brazil is down around 51% YoY to 1.1mt, reflecting a slow start to the crushing season. High energy prices continue to be supportive for ethanol production with mills allocating more cane towards biofuel supply. TagsSugar Russia-Ukraine Natural gas EIA Covid-19 China   Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Forex: Could Incoming ECB Decision Support Euro?

Although US Bonds Yields May Be Higher, Current Circumstances Are Not Clear As US CPI Release And Correlated Fed Interest Rate Decision In June Are To Shape Markets | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 11.05.2022 17:15
The inflation concerns are easing ahead of today’s US CPI reading. We doubt central bankers will back down so soon, however. Markets are coming around to our view that a peak is near in yields, but we think it might still be a couple of months away In this article US 10yr edges back below 3% on remarkable easing in inflation expectations The inflation scare is easing but beware of circular reasonings Global growth gloom means holding psychologically important levels will be more difficult Today’s events and market views The peak in yields may be near US 10yr edges back below 3% on remarkable easing in inflation expectations The juxtaposition between rising real rates and falling inflation expectations remains, and over the past 24 hours the fall in inflation expectations has been dominant. And that’s why the US 10yr yield has dipped back below 3%. Right now, US 10yr inflation expectations are in the region of 2.65%. They were in excess of 3%, albeit briefly, a few weeks back, at which point talk of a 75bp hike in June were sounding like a solid call. Now that inflation expectations are well down, the 50bp promised looks fine. "10yr real rate in the area of 1% would not look out of whack" Meanwhile the 10yr real yield is now above 30bp. Add that to the inflation expectation and we get the sub-3% 10yr Treasury yield. The move higher in the real yield has been spectacular. Back in March it was deeper than -100bp. The move to 30bp is a sign that the economy has morphed away from the need for ultra-loose policy. And a continued move higher takes it towards a more normal footing. In fact a 10yr real rate in the area of 1% would not look out of whack. If we got there, inflation expectations would fall far more. The adjustment higher in real yields is a threat to risk asset valuations Source: Refinitiv, ING   Today’s US CPI number will be important, but not determinative. In other words it should not have a material impact on the 10yr inflation expectation. That said, if it’s an outsized / surprise number, it’s then more likely to have an impact out the curve. Our central view is in line with the market view, where we do see a fall in contemporaneous inflation, consistent with the recent tendency for inflation expectations to ease lower. We’ve been surprised by this though, and think it’s too early to call it a trend. The inflation scare is easing but beware of circular reasonings The ‘peak inflation’ narrative should receive a boost from slowing US annual headline and core inflation readings today but we would be cautious about chasing the move lower in rates. As always, forward-looking markets could apply a heavy discount to central bank rhetoric but an acceleration in monthly core CPI means Fed officials are unlikely to change tack just yet. One should also remember that the decline from the inflation peak will be very slow indeed, keeping pressure on the Fed to act. Swaps show inflation is no longer the market's only concern Source: Refinitiv, ING   US CPI and Eurozone HICP swaps have dropped significantly this month Further afield, inflation compensation offered by US CPI and Eurozone HICP swaps has dropped significantly this month. Should markets conclude that central banks can now afford to be less hawkish? Only up to a point. To some extent, the drop in inflation swaps is owing to a deteriorating global macro environment, but the post-FOMC timing of this drop also suggests that it has at least as much to do with expectations that central banks will deliver on expected tightening. We would be careful with such circular reasonings. Global growth gloom means holding psychologically important levels will be more difficult For an example of the doubt setting in investors’ mind about central banks’ ability to tighten policy, look no further than yesterday’s better-than-expected German (Zew) and US (National Federation of Independent Business) sentiment indicators. None of the readings was enough to alleviate global growth gloom but the NFIB details in particular could have brought inflation fears back to the fore. We suspect it is too early to call the end of the hawkish re-pricing, with central bankers still very much on their front-foot when it comes to delivering monetary tightening. Bonds risk failing a psychologically important test Source: Refinitiv, ING   We have sympathy with the growing view that there is a short time limit to this tightening cycle We think a better candidate for a peak in yields in this cycle is during the third quarter of this year, after the ECB’s expected first hike and after the couple of additional 50bp hikes the Fed has committed to. This being said, turning points are notoriously difficult to pick and we have sympathy with the growing view that there is a short time limit to this tightening cycle. Should 10Y bonds fail to hold on to their recent jump above the psychologically important levels of 3% for Treasuries and 1% for Bunds, it may take a lot of good news to test these levels again. Today’s events and market views Germany (10Y) and Portugal (8Y) make up today’s Euro sovereign supply slate. This will come on top of a dual tranche NGeu syndicated deal in the 3Y (new issue) and 30Y (tap) sectors. In the US session, the Treasury will auction 10Y notes. The main release of note in the afternoon will be the April CPI report. Consensus is for the annual readings to cool down from the previous month but a monthly acceleration in core could muddy the picture for rates. There is also an extensive list of ECB speakers on the schedule, culminating with interventions from Christine Lagarde and Isabel Schnabel. TagsRates Daily   Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Turbulent Times for Currencies: USD Dominates, SEK Shines

Hong Kong's And Malaysia's GDP Are Printed Today So Does US Michigan Sentiment | Asia Morning Bites | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 13.05.2022 11:33
Just in case markets need another excuse to panic - its Friday the 13th In this article Macro outlook What to look out for: US sentiment Source: shutterstock Macro outlook Global: US stocks took a breather yesterday, and both the S&P500 and NASDAQ finished broadly unchanged, though it was a choppy session with big swings in both directions. The same cannot be said about the benchmark FX index, EURUSD, which plunged to new lows of 1.0380 from the low-1.05s yesterday. The plunge dragged the AUD with it, which is now 0.685, though the JPY seems to be catching a bid here, and it has dropped back to 128.50. With the exception of the JPY, Asian FX was all down against the USD yesterday with the CNY showing little sign of halting its recent slide. Treasury yields were lower again, 2s falling more than 10s. 10Y US Treasury yields are now down 36bp from their May 5 peak at 2.86%. Have US treasury yields already seen their peak for this cycle?  Discuss… really, I’d be interested in your thoughts…I’m not sure what the answer is but it must be worth considering… Data wise, it is a quiet day with the US University of Michigan consumer confidence index and associated inflation expectations measures. We’ve had Powell and Daly re-iterating the idea that the next FOMC meetings will deliver 50bp hikes, not 75bp, though this doesn’t seem to be enough to quell market anxiety anymore. Kashkari has a speaking engagement today on energy and inflation, so we’ll see if he has better luck. India: Late yesterday, India released April CPI, which came in at 7.8%YoY, a fair bit higher than the 7.4% consensus expectation. The upside surprise was partly food-related but was also supported by strength in the fuel and light component and transport (all reflecting higher energy prices) as well as clothing. Now that the RBI is in hiking mode after their 40bp hike this month, it may be worth considering if the next move will need to be 50bp? India also releases April trade data today. The market consensus is for the deficit to widen to -$20bn – for choice, I’d probably go wider still, reflecting domestic economic strength and higher-priced imported commodities. China: Beijing has three days of residents staying at home for Covid testing. Though not officially considered a “lockdown” the economic impacts will be similar. The zero-Covid policy is once again confirmed. Damage to the economy is difficult to estimate from the uncertainty of the timing and duration of lockdown. Guangdong province is experiencing floods from heavy rainfall. This may also affect the operations of some factories, adding another headwind to manufacturing and exports.  South Korea: The government has proposed its 2nd supplementary budget worth 59.4 trillion won, of which 36.4 trillion won is allocated to the central government and 70% of the budget is allocated to compensate small business owners. The size of cash transfer is at least 6 million won to 10 million won each (USD450 – 800). The remaining 23 trillion won is earmarked to transfer to local government.  No bond issuance is required as the budget is mostly financed through excess tax revenue of 53 trillion won and expenditure restructuring. This is expected to provide some relief to the bond market due to better supply conditions. However, higher-than-expected government spending could add further upside risk to the current CPI forecast of 4.6% in 2022 and trigger more aggressive monetary tightening. For now, we think that the Bank of Korea would stop at 2.25% and try not to go beyond that. What to look out for: US sentiment Malaysia GDP (13 May) Hong Kong GDP (13 May) US Michigan sentiment (13 May) TagsEmerging Markets Asia Pacific Asia Markets Asia economics   Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
EUR/USD Faces Resistance at 1.0774 Amid Inflation and Stagflation Concerns

Key events in EMEA next week | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 13.05.2022 13:14
Preliminary GDP readings in Poland, Hungary and Romania are the key figures to look out for next week The pre-election spending spree of the Hungarian government has provided a boost to household incomes Share    Download article as PDF Hungary: Upside GDP surprise expected following the pre-election spending spree In Hungary, the main calendar event of the next week is the release of the first-quarter GDP data. As this is only a flash estimate, we hardly get any information about the growth structure. But we are expecting a major upside surprise in economic activity, taking into consideration the first quarter output of the industry, retail and construction sectors. With massive quarter-on-quarter performances in these areas, we are looking for an acceleration in GDP growth. This great outcome can be seen as a temporary phenomenon, as the pre-election spending spree of the government gave a boost to the real disposable income of households alongside the roughly 20% minimum wage increase. EMEA Economic Calendar Refinitiv, ING, *GMT TagsHungary EMEA   Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Turbulent Times Ahead: ECB's Tough Decision Amid Soaring Oil Prices

Navigating Energy Shock: Insights from Polish Business and the Path to Energy Independence

ING Economics ING Economics 17.08.2023 15:37
As part of ING Bank's project with the European Economic Congress in the first quarter of this year, journalists of the WNP.pl portal conducted 19 in-depth interviews with managers of Polish companies from various industries and two chambers of commerce (Scandinavian and Italian) operating in Poland. The report, titled: "The Response of Polish Business to the Energy Shock. Prospects for energy investments" reflects the voice of business and the reaction of companies to the energy shock. We have also gathered suggestions for changes in energy investments.   Price shock and searching for energy independence Russia's invasion of Ukraine and restrictions on Russian energy imports have led to an energy price shock in Europe. All Polish companies were affected by this situation, and some of them reacted proactively. Due to the energy "shields," especially for small businesses, the increase in energy prices varied widely across EU countries. The decisive factor was the size of the company and the value of its annual consumption. For example, in the second half of 2022, natural gas prices for companies in Poland consuming no more than 1 TJ (terajoule) of gas per year fell by 10% compared to the second half of 2021, while for the consumption range between 10 and 100 TJ, they rose by almost 90% over the period. Average increases in gas prices for companies last year varied depending on the volume of consumption in other countries as well, for example, in Germany very markedly – from 24% to almost 90% year-on-year.   Natural gas prices   The scale of the shock at the company level, among other things, depended on the energy intensity of production processes and the energy carriers used. Companies have made efforts to improve energy efficiency (to use less energy in production activities) or to build their own renewable energy sources (an attempt to become partially independent from the electricity from the grid). About 80% of the total energy in Polish industry is consumed by a total of six sectors: non-metallic minerals, chemicals and petrochemicals, food, iron and steel, paper and wood.   Energy consumption by sector         Our report summarises the business response to expensive energy and the significant risks of energy shortages, particularly natural gas in 2022. In the publication, we also answer the questions: What is holding back energy investment in Poland?  What can segmentation of the energy market caused by differentiated public support – depending on the size of the company – lead to?  What are companies' expectations for prices and availability of energy carriers in 2023?  What will Poland's energy mix be in two decades?  Why is greening and ESG criteria not a fad, but a necessity for maintaining competitiveness and cooperation in global supply chains?    We need to speed up the energy transition In energy investments, companies have not infrequently encountered regulatory barriers, and have often bumped up against the inadequacy of power grids to accommodate more distributed energy sources. In the report, we emphasise the need to accelerate the expansion and modernisation of distribution and transmission power grids as a sine qua non for investments in zero-carbon generation sources: RES and nuclear. Investment in renewable energy has increased significantly in recent years. In 2022, we had more than 9 GW of capacity in photovoltaics, compared to just over 1 GW in 2019.   New capacity installed   Polish business is vocal about the need to accelerate the expansion and modernisation of distribution and transmission power grids as a prerequisite for investment in zero-carbon generation sources. Renewable and nuclear energy are expected to be key elements of Poland's energy mix in two to three decades. Beyond that, electrification remains key to decarbonisation by 2050. In the coming decades, electricity-based technologies will gradually replace current energy carriers in transportation (electric vehicles), industry (e.g. electric arc in metallurgy) or buildings (e.g. heat pumps).   Tandem power generation and grids We saw what an unequal tandem, i.e. RES development without a corresponding increase in grid investment, can lead to already in late April. In an environment of lower demand for electricity, it was RES power that was being blocked by the system operator. Coal or gas-fired power plants cannot be flexibly switched on and off. Such a situation is economically inefficient and environmentally disadvantageous. It's high time to accelerate investments in distribution and transmission networks so that the power and grid tandem will smoothly lead Poland towards a low-carbon future.  

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