fx impact

FX Daily: Asia in the driver's seat

The dollar is softer and pro-cyclical currencies are following the yuan higher after news that China is preparing a CNY 2tn rescue package for the stock market. The BoJ revised inflation expectations lower but signalled further progress towards the target, keeping anticipation for a hike in June alive. We expect New Zealand CPI to be soft tonight.

 

USD: China and Japan in focus

The dollar has been mostly moved by developments from outside of the US since the start of the week. China remains the centre of attention before key central bank meetings in the developed world. Risk sentiment was boosted overnight as the Chinese government is reportedly considering a large CNY 2tn package to support the struggling stock markets. The rescue plan should be mostly targeted to the Hang Seng stock exchange, which has sharply underperformed global equities of late. This is a strong message that conveys Beijing’s intention to artificially support Chinese ma

Bank of Japan Governor Hints at Rate Hike: A Closer Look

The ECB's Role: Lifeline or Trampoline for EUR/USD Amidst Rate Hike Speculation

ING Economics ING Economics 12.09.2023 08:57
ECB may be a lifeline not a trampoline for EUR/USD September’s ECB meeting will be a binary risk event for the euro. Our baseline scenario sees a rate hike, which would translate into a stronger euro in the aftermath of the announcement, as market pricing is leaning in favour of a hold. But with EUR/USD having been on a steady bearish path since the 1.12 July peak, the real question is whether a hike would invert the trend. The short answer is probably not, but there are some important considerations to make. First of all, it’s worth explaining why we think the FX impact of an ECB hike will be short-lived. One key reason is pricing: markets have doubted the ability of the ECB to hike this week (9bp priced in), but are still factoring in a total of 17bp of tightening to the peak by year-end. Arguably, the ECB hawks won’t have much interest in delivering one hike this week and striking a dovish tone, as the effective tightening via rates would be limited, so they should accompany a hike with openness to do more. However, with economic conditions deteriorating fast in the eurozone and dovish dissent within the ECB growing, it will be hard to convince markets to price in any additional tightening. When we look at the 2-year swap rate spread between the euro and the dollar, an important driver of currency fluctuations, we can tell that it has recently approached the -125bp support level (five central bank “lengths” between the Federal Reserve and ECB). Let’s remember that the swap rate tells us the expected average rate for the next two years, so includes expectations for the final moves in the tightening cycle (if any) and rate cuts. What has really driven the recent widening of the spread in favour of the dollar has not been any repricing higher in Fed rate hike expectations, but a downsizing of easing bets in the US for next year.   EUR/USD and short-term swap spread     With rate hike cycles coming to an end, swap rates are increasingly sensitive to expectations about the timing and pace of easing cycles. Those expectations are, however, far less controllable by central bank communication, and much more dependent on data. But can the ECB at least show signs of a united hawkish front and convincingly push back against rate cut speculation? (The first ECB cut is priced in for July 2024). If it can, then you have a trampoline for a sustainable EUR/USD rebound, otherwise – and we really think this will be the case – the best President Lagarde can do for the euro is to offer a lifeline. One way the ECB could, however, end up having a longer-lasting FX impact is via an acceleration in quantitative tightening. However, that obviously comes with non-negligible risks to peripheral spreads, and policymakers may want to tread quite carefully in that sense.   After the short-term impact, EUR/USD should revert to being driven primarily by the dollar leg, or in other words by Fed rate expectations and US data. We still expect a turn higher in the pair, but patience is the name of the game for EUR/USD bulls like us, and more downside corrections even after a potential ECB hawkish surprise are a very tangible risk.
Rates Spark: Time to Fade the Up-Move in Yields

SEK: Riksbank's Dilemma - To Hike or to Hold in a Precarious Balancing Act

ING Economics ING Economics 23.11.2023 13:19
SEK: Riksbank at a crossroads Today’s Riksbank rate announcement is as close to a 50/50 hike/hold decision as it can get. The Bank has been hugely focused on the krona’s levels recently, and the recent good performance of SEK has prompted markets to lean on the dovish side (70% implied probability of a hold). One major counterargument is that the recent SEK strength has been somewhat “artificial”, given it has been driven by some rather aggressive FX selling via hedging operations by the Riksbank itself. On the inflation side, core and headline price pressures have abated faster than expected, although the CPIF excluding energy is still at 6.1% YoY, and the Prospera surveys suggested inflation expectations have remained quite sticky. What we see as a major point in favour of a hike is timing. The Riksbank’s next policy meeting is in February, when the economic slack will have likely materialised more clearly in Sweden and abroad and it will be considerably harder to hike rates. If the intent is to provide more support to SEK, the Riksbank may take into account that FX sales (i.e. the “artificial” support to SEK) should terminate around the end of January/early February if the current weekly pace is sustained, and be encouraged to hike now rather than later, when economic conditions likely won’t allow it. All in all, we are slightly leaning in favour of a rate hike today, even though we admit it is a very close call. A hold may be accompanied by an acceleration in quantitative tightening. The FX impact won’t just depend on the outcome, since there is a tangible risk of a split board, which could limit the upside potential for SEK in the event of a hike.
Bank of Japan Keeps Rates Steady, Paves the Way for April Hike Amidst Market Disappointment

Bank of Japan Keeps Rates Steady, Paves the Way for April Hike Amidst Market Disappointment

ING Economics ING Economics 19.12.2023 12:14
JPY: Ueda disappoints markets, but April hike on the table The Bank of Japan kept rates unchanged today as widely expected, but disappointed market hawkish expectations. The Bank kept its dovish guidance unchanged (“take additional monetary easing steps without hesitation if needed") which forced markets to abandon speculation of a rate hike in January.   The yen took a hit, falling almost by 1.0% against the dollar after the announcement and press conference by Governor Ueda, but we identified a few changes in the Bank’s assessment of the economic outlook that likely endorse the market’s lingering expectations for a hike in April. In particular, the BoJ noted that private consumption has continued to increase modestly, that inflation is likely to be above 2% throughout the 2024 fiscal year and that underlying inflation is likely to increase. Those statements are aimed at paving the way for policy normalisation in 2024, in our view. We expect the yield curve control to be scrapped in January and a hike to be delivered in April. From an FX perspective, the yen may simply revert to trading primarily on external factors (US rates in particular) after the BoJ ignored market pressure and likely signalled the path to normalisation should be a gradual one. We remain bearish on USD/JPY in 2024, as the oversold yen can still benefit from the end of negative rates in Japan and we see the Fed cutting rates by 150bp, but the pace of depreciation in the pair will be gradual in the near term, and we only see a decisive break below 140 in 2Q24.   ⚠️ Did the #BOJ fall asleep on the $JPY 🖨️ print button or what? 🤭Almost makes you wonder if someone out there is in desperate need of liquidity… 🤔 https://t.co/EdRfXb9vUH pic.twitter.com/z2dN3YVtuH — JustDario 🏊‍♂️ (@DarioCpx) December 19, 2023
National Bank of Romania Maintains Rates, Eyes Inflation Outlook

Turbulence in Asia: China's Rescue Plan and BoJ's Inflation Revision

ING Economics ING Economics 25.01.2024 12:48
FX Daily: Asia in the driver's seat The dollar is softer and pro-cyclical currencies are following the yuan higher after news that China is preparing a CNY 2tn rescue package for the stock market. The BoJ revised inflation expectations lower but signalled further progress towards the target, keeping anticipation for a hike in June alive. We expect New Zealand CPI to be soft tonight.   USD: China and Japan in focus The dollar has been mostly moved by developments from outside of the US since the start of the week. China remains the centre of attention before key central bank meetings in the developed world. Risk sentiment was boosted overnight as the Chinese government is reportedly considering a large CNY 2tn package to support the struggling stock markets. The rescue plan should be mostly targeted to the Hang Seng stock exchange, which has sharply underperformed global equities of late. This is a strong message that conveys Beijing’s intention to artificially support Chinese markets in spite of the deteriorating economic outlook in the region, and it is reported that other measures are under consideration. It does appear a temporary solution, though. Ultimately, stronger conviction on a Chinese economic rebound is likely necessary to drive a sustainable recovery in Chinese-linked stocks. For now, the FX impact has been positive; USD/CNY has dropped to 7.16/7.17 and we are seeing gains being spread across pro-cyclical currencies as safe-haven flows to the dollar are waning. Doubts about the impact of Beijing rescue package’s effects beyond the short-term automatically extend to the FX impact. It does seem premature to call for an outperformance of China-linked currencies (like AUD and NZD) and softening in the dollar on the back of this morning’s headlines. Another important development in Asian markets overnight was the Bank of Japan policy announcement. In line with our expectations and market consensus, there were no changes to the yield curve control, and forward guidance remained unchanged. Inflation projections were revised lower from 2.8% to 2.4% for the fiscal year starting in April. The revision was mostly a consequence of declining oil prices, and the inflation path continues to show an overshoot of the target for some time. All this was largely expected, and markets are focusing on Governor Kazuo Ueda’s claim that Japan has continued to inch closer to the inflation goals, keeping expectations for an eventual end to the ultra-dovish policy stance some time this year. The yen is experiencing a rebound which is likely boosted its oversold conditions. Money markets currently price in a 10bp rate hike in June. Extra help from a declining USD this morning might push USD/JPY a bit lower (below 147) today, but we suspect that markets may favour defensive USD positions as the Fed meeting approaches. Domestically, the only release to watch today in the US is the Richmond Fed Manufacturing index, which will give some flavour about the state of the sector ahead of tomorrow’s S&P Global PMIs. DXY may stabilise slightly below 103.00 once the China-led risk rally has settled.

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