eurozone

US housing numbers will be the main focus next week. The Federal Reserve's aggressive hiking cycle has already sent the market into recession and more pain lies ahead. In the eurozone, we expect higher inflation at 9.6% while unemployment should remain unchanged

In this article US: Housing numbers in focus after Fed's 75bp hike Eurozone: Higher inflation and unemployment rate expect to remain at 6.6% Source: Shutterstock US: Housing numbers in focus after Fed's 75bp hike After the Federal Reserve's 75bp rate hike this week and Jerome Powell's commentary that the Fed is prepared to sacrifice growth and jobs to ensure inflation comes back to target, we will be hearing from many more officials over the coming week. Given the strong clustering of near-term forecasts for rates and the economy, the hawkish comments hinting at another 75bp hike in November are likely to come thick and fast. The data calendar is fairly light with housing numbers the main focus. Wi

The EUR/USD And The GBP/USD: The Most Important Details For Beginners

How Are USD (US Dollar), (Canadian Dollar) CAD, (Euro) EUR, (British Pound) GBP Doing? | FX Daily: Hold your horses | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 18.05.2022 08:58
The rebound in global equities is fuelling a widespread recovery in G10 pro-cyclical FX against the USD. Still, yesterday's remarks by Jay Powell were a reminder of the very hawkish Fed policy. Ultimately, rate and growth differentials should curb the dollar's weakness against most peers - except for the CAD where today's CPI should endorse more hikes Learn on ING Economics USD: Don't forget the rate and growth factor The rebound in global equities has continued to fuel a recovery in pro-cyclical currencies, and a correction in the safe-haven US dollar and Japanese yen. Overnight, Asian equities were mixed, and the CSI300 failed to follow yesterday’s jump in US-traded Chinese tech stocks following some unusually supportive comments for China’s tech companies from one of Beijing’s top officials, which fuelled speculation of some easing in the current crackdown. Stock index futures suggest a flat open in major Western equity markets today. Clearly, the monetary policy story is playing a secondary role in the market narrative at the moment, but yesterday’s comments by Fed Chair Powell were quite relevant from a signalling perspective, as he firmly reiterated the Fed’s determination to bring inflation sustainably lower, even by hiking beyond the neutral rate if necessary. While the dollar momentum is set to remain weak as long as global assets stay in recovery mode, the notion of aggressive Fed tightening continues to argue against a sustained bearish dollar trend. Incidentally, this week’s moves have likely placed the dollar in a less overbought condition. With this in mind, DXY should find increasing support below the 103.00 area. The US economic calendar includes some housing data today, and Patrick Harker is the only Fed speaker scheduled for remarks. EUR: Upside room starting to shrink EUR/USD has risen in line with other pro-cyclical pairs this week, breaking back above the 1.0500 level and now being at a safe distance from the key 2017-low support of 1.0340, which if breached would probably pave the way for a move towards parity. Today, the eurozone calendar is not busy and only includes the final print of April’s CPI numbers. We’ll also hear from European Central Bank hawk Madis Muller today, although the recent re-pricing higher in ECB rate expectations (markets now fully price in a deposit rate at 1.0% in December) means that the bar for any hawkish surprise is set very high. Our view on the limited downside risk for the dollar beyond the very short term obviously implies that the room for appreciation in EUR/USD should also start to shrink soon. We also believe that markets are pricing in too much tightening by the ECB – though not by the Fed – and expect the theme of growth divergence (exacerbated by the EU-Russia standoff on commodities) to become more relevant into the summer. With this in mind, we suspect that any further rally in EUR/USD may start to lose steam around the 1.0650-1.0700 area, with risks of a return below 1.0500 in the near term being quite material. GBP: Inflation rises, but double digits aren't assured This morning’s inflation report in the UK was broadly in line with consensus expectations, as headline CPI rose to 9.0% (largely due to the increase in the electricity price cap) with the core rate rising to 6.2% year-on-year in April. This means inflation is largely where the Bank of England expects it to be. Still, the BoE projections embed a move to double-digit inflation by the end of the year, a prospect that we are still not convinced will materialise. There are no BoE speakers today. The oversold pound has faced a strong rebound this week, recouping some of its recent sharp losses as global risk appetite improved. While the good GBP momentum may continue as equities find some stability in the coming days, the pound still faces two major downside risks in the coming months: a) a further dovish repricing of BoE rate expectations (the implied rate for end-2022 is still 2.0%); b) Brexit-related risk, as the unilateral suspension by the UK of parts of the Northern Ireland agreement would likely trigger a trade war with the EU. We think cable will mostly trade below the 1.2500 mark during the summer. CAD: Inflation data unlikely to affect BoC policy expectations Inflation data will be released in Canada today, and the market is expecting some signs that the headline rate has peaked (at 6.7% YoY), which would imply a monthly increase of 0.5% in April. Core measures may however continue to inch marginally higher. Barring major surprises in the data today, we suspect that the impact on the Bank of Canada's rate expectations and on the Canadian dollar will be limited. The BoC remains on track to deliver 50bp of rate increases in tandem with the Fed, being able to count on a tight labour market, growing workforce and positive commodity story. In our view, the BoC will ultimately have to deliver more monetary tightening than the Fed in the next year. USD/CAD has broken below 1.2800 and should continue to weaken if we see further signs of stability in global sentiment today. Crucially, the rate and growth differential that may curb EUR/USD don't apply to CAD vs USD given a hawkish BoC and strong growth in Canada, which means that a rally in the loonie should prove more sustainable than the EUR/USD one. We continue to target sub-1.25 levels in USD/CAD by the second half of the year. Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Czech Inflation Hits Lower Than Expected Level. Could Czech National Bank Hike Again?

ECB minutes show that the hawks are calling the shots | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 19.05.2022 15:29
The European Central Bank hawks are calling the shots. The minutes of the ECB’s April meeting just confirmed that the hawks increasingly have the upper hand in discussions. A rate hike in July is no longer uncertain, the only uncertainty is whether it will be 25bp or 50bp   The minutes of the ECB’s April meeting provided more evidence that a majority of policymakers at the ECB have become increasingly concerned about the inflation outlook. The most important elements of the minutes are: Pipeline inflationary pressure. “The war in Ukraine and the pandemic measures in China suggested that pipeline pressures and bottlenecks were likely to intensify further, affecting consumer prices over a relatively long period of time.” Fear of stronger wage growth. While the ECB currently only sees moderate wage pressure, “there could be little doubt that workers would eventually ask for compensation for the loss in real income.” There was also evidence from different countries pointing to some heterogeneity across the eurozone. Greenflation. The accelerated decarbonisation and the attempt to increase Europe’s energy independence was another factor structurally pushing up prices. Also, reshoring efforts could reduce the disinflationary impact of globalisation on wages and inflation. Not whether the ECB will hike in July but by how much As regards the next policy steps, several members claimed that the accommodative monetary stance “was no longer consistent with the inflation outlook”, arguing for a faster normalisation process. Otherwise, inflation expectations could continue to rise further from a level that is already above the Governing Council’s target. Acting too late could also lead to second-round effects and “might have high economic, financial stability and credibility costs if the Governing Council were forced to tighten more aggressively at a later stage in order to re-anchor inflation expectations.” All in all, the minutes confirmed the increasingly hawkish tone of many ECB members since the April meeting. There seems to be an eerie feeling that the ECB is acting too late and quickly needs to join the bandwagon of monetary policy normalisation. This means that the question is no longer whether the ECB should hike interest rates in July but by how much. Former ECB President Mario Draghi once said that “when in a dark room you move with tiny steps. You don’t run but you do move”. It currently looks as if there is a growing majority at the ECB that wants not just to run but to sprint. Read this article on THINK TagsMonetary policy GDP Eurozone ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The Japanese Yen Has The Worst Performer Among The G-10 Currencies

FX Daily: Activity currencies remain under pressure | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 19.05.2022 09:56
Wednesday was another bad day for equities where the MSCI World equity index fell another 3%. The fact that expectations for Fed policy tightening remain intact is a sign that investors appreciate that tackling inflation is now the priority for central banks. This continues to favour the anti-cyclical dollar, but also now the Japanese yen Source: Shutterstock USD: The cavalry ain't coming Yesterday saw the S&P 500 sell off 4%, led by consumer stocks. The fact that some of the biggest main street names are under pressure on the back of profit warnings is a reminder that the squeeze on real incomes is starting to hit home. Over prior decades, decades associated with very dovish Fed policy, one might have expected this magnitude of an equity market sell-off to put a dent in Fed tightening expectations - or expectations that the Fed would come to the equity market's rescue. In fact, the Fed funds futures strip barely budged yesterday. We read this as a sign that investors now appreciate that tackling inflation is the number one priority of the Fed - and the Fed will not easily be blown off course. At the same time, we are still only hearing concerns from Chinese policymakers about the slowdown, rather than any promise of major fiscal support. And one could argue what would be the use of major fiscal support if workers and residents remain trapped in Covid lockdowns? For that reason, it seems very difficult to argue that renminbi depreciation has run its course and we cannot rule out USD/CNY pushing through the 6.80 area over coming weeks and months. This all leaves the anti-cyclical dollar quite well supported. We had made the case on Tuesday for a bounce in the oversold dollar. That bounce did not last long and again it is hard to rule out the dollar edging back to recent highs. Not until the Fed blinks on policy tightening or the rest of the world's growth prospects start to look attractive - neither of which seem likely over coming months - will the dollar put in an important top.  For today, the US calendar is light with just initial claims and existing home sales for April. Housing looks to be one of the most vulnerable sectors of the US economy, but its slowdown (and its effect on dragging core inflation lower) looks a story for much later in the year. DXY has seen a modest bull market correction this week, but can probably edge higher to 104.10 today. Read next: Altcoins: What Is Monero? Explaining XMR. Untraceable Cryptocurrency!? | FXMAG.COM EUR: ECB will have to talk a good game Providing the euro a little support this week has been even more hawkish commentary from the European Central Bank. We had felt that the market would struggle to price in more than 75bp of ECB tightening this year, but central bank hawks such as Klaas Knot have introduced the idea of the ECB moving in 50bp increments. This has helped narrow the two-year German Schatz-US Treasury spread to 225bp from recent wides at 250bp and provided some modest support for the dollar. This can be seen as verbal intervention from the ECB to support the euro. An important policy paper from the ECB a few years ago concluded that two-year rate differentials were the most significant driver of EUR/USD and the ECB's best hope of stablising EUR/USD may indeed be to talk up prospects of the forthcoming tightening cycle. For today, look out for the minutes of the April ECB meeting, where again it might choose to emphasise the more hawkish elements. EUR/USD has had its oversold bounce to 1.0550 and with the global environment remaining challenged, EUR/USD could today drift back through 1.0450/60 to 1.0400. Elsewhere, we note some short-term similarities between both the Swiss franc and the Czech koruna. The central banks behind both currencies would prefer stronger currencies to play their role in delivering stable/tighter monetary conditions. We conclude that EUR/CHF upside may be more limited - and the downside more open - than most believe. While for EUR/CZK, the Czech National Bank (CNB) will want EUR/CZK to continue trading under 25.00 and perhaps lower still - until at least 1 July when a new CNB governor takes over.  GBP: One month realised volatility at 8%! EUR/GBP one month realised volatility is back at 8% - which is very high for a European FX pair. Expect this volatility to continue given much uncertainty about the policy path for both the Bank of England (BoE) and the ECB. Here, we happen to think that tightening cycles in both are over-priced and one would probably think that the BoE cycle gets repriced lower first. Expect EUR/GBP to continue to trade in a very wide 0.8400-0.8600 range, while cable looks more one-way traffic. We have seen the bear market bounce to 1.2500 this week and the difficult external environment would favour a break of 1.2330 support in a move back to the 1.22 lows.  Read next: Altcoins: What Is Polkadot (DOT)? Cross-Chain Transfers Of Any Type Of Asset Or Data. A Deeper Look Into Polkadot Protocol | FXMAG.COM ZAR: SARB expected to hike 50bp today The South African Reserve Bank (SARB) is widely expected to hike 50bp to 4.75% today. The policy rate is quite low by emerging market standards, but that is because core inflation is only running at 3.9% year-on-year. A 50bp hike looks unlikely to generate much support to the rand, which is currently being re-priced off of the Chinese growth cycle. With $70bn of portfolio capital having left emerging markets since Russia invaded Ukraine - and with South Africa having large weights in emerging market debt and equity benchmarks - we expect the rand to stay under pressure for the time being.  16.35 is big resistance for USD/ZAR, above which 17.00 beckons for later in the year. Rising US real yields and the China slowdown continue to make the bear case for emerging markets.   Read this article on THINK Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Italian industrial production fell again in June, raising doubts over 3Q growth

Stronger Euro (EUR)? Rates Spark: Four ECB hikes and a bit more | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 19.05.2022 09:08
Curves pivoting flatter fits a narrative further shifting towards growth concerns. As European Central Bank pricing gets more hawkish there is more than just the possibility of 50bp moves that could explain how 100bp in four meetings after June could come to pass, even if that is not our view    USD and EUR curves pivoting flatter around the belly of the curve amid weaker risk assets is a pattern that fits the narrative of market concerns having shifted toward rising risks to the growth outlook as central banks tighten policies amid high inflation. Continuing to lean more hawkish on the hawk-dove seesaw In EUR, markets have further ratcheted up their ECB rate hike expectations. By the end of the year they expect an overnight rate more than 100bp higher from now. If one assumes that the ECB will use the June meeting to prepare the grounds for rate hikes by announcing also the end of all net asset purchases, then this would imply an expectation of 25bp hikes at each of the other four remaining policy setting meetings in 2022 – and a bit more. 25bp hikes at the four ECB meetings starting with July – and a bit more Does that mean the possibility of a 50bp hike by the ECB is catching on?  After all it had been floated by the ECB’s Klaas Knot earlier this week, but his remarks may have been more about signaling a commitment to act forcefully. A sources article published yesterday outlined that a majority of the Council supported at least two 25bp hikes this year, but downplayed the notion of a 50bp move. Read next: Altcoins: What Is Litecoin (LTC)? A Deeper Look Into The Litecoin Platform| FXMAG.COM Curve flattening fits a pattern of growth concerns and tightening central banks Source: Refinitiv, ING Other factors driving aggressive market pricing The aggressive market pricing will to a degree also reflect a higher risk premium amid volatile times, but we would also not exclude some uncertainty being reflected about the evolution of excess reserves in the banking system and how the ECB proceeds with the tiered deposit rate. The expectation is still that larger early repayments of banks’ targeted longer-term refinancing operations borrowings loom in the months ahead, although higher comparable market rates may have now made it more compelling for banks to hold on to the funds beyond June until the September repayment date. On the forwards strip for the ECB meeting periods markets see c.4bp higher overnight rates for the upcoming June meeting, though it may also include outside chances for an immediate ECB rate hike. It is conspicuous that the market prices the largest increase for September, a rise of noticeably more than 30bp while it is below 25bp for the other meetings this year save July. More than 100bp from the ECB in the four 2022 meetings after June Source: Refinitiv, ING   For September the market prices an increase of more than 30bp Perhaps the ECB minutes to be released today will shed more light on the ECB’s internal deliberations on what needs to be done in the face of rising inflation and the balance of risks tilting less favourably. But given how far official communication has already evolved since the April meeting to converge with the market view, the minutes should look dovish, not to say outdated. It was a meeting that still signaled a very gradual move. To be sure, our own expectation is also that aggressive market pricing will likely not be realised with our economists looking for three ECB hikes by the turn of the year. Today's events and market view In the Eurozone the ECB minutes of the 14 April meeting will take the spotlight amid an otherwise quiet data calendar. The minutes have seldomly been market moving, and they should appear especially outdated this time around as ECB communication has evolved quickly since then. We will also hear from the ECB's de Guindos and de Cos today. The other market focus will be today’s busy supply slate. France sells up to €13bn across shorter dated bond lines, including a new 6Y, and linkers. Spain reopens four bond lines including its 20Y green bond for up to €6bn in total.   The US sees publication of initial jobless claims and existing home sales. Read next: Altcoins: What Is Monero? Explaining XMR. Untraceable Cryptocurrency!? | FXMAG.COM Read this article on THINK TagsRates Daily Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Eurozone: We Will Be Able To Have A More Detailed Look At The Economy As PMI Data Is Released

Rates Spark: The rates upside remains real | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 20.05.2022 08:41
Completing the shift of the market narrative towards growth concerns, bonds are reasserting their role as safe havens. The European Central Bank minutes confirmed the Council's desire to act faster, also with an eye on still ultra low real yields  Risks remain to the upside for rates Bonds' negative correlations with risk assets consolidates amid growth concerns As markets continue to trade in a risk-off fashion, bonds have managed to reassert their role as safe havens. The pattern of bond curves consistently rallying flatter as risk assets sell off has only reestablished itself over the past few sessions. In a way this dynamic completes the transition of the market narrative toward growth concerns, away from being dominated by central banks' prospective tightening lifting market rates out the entire curves. bonds have managed to reassert their role as safe havens This does not mean that data releases couldn't shift the focus again. Next week will offer some opportunities with the release of the flash PMI surveys for instance. And if the Fed deems inflation (expectations) are not coming down fast enough, it may well use the FOMC minutes next week to signal more hawkish moves. The 75bp-hike discussion is not entirely off the table. Unlike the ECB, the Fed has used its meeting minutes as a more active communications tool, such as outlining its plans for the balance sheet run-off. We will also watch the PCE deflator, the Fed's preferred inflation gauge at the end of next week. Risk-off drives curves flatter Source: Refinitiv, ING ECB minutes, outdated but also highlighting the upside in rates The ECB minutes have been overtaken by the quick evolution of ECB communication since the last meeting. The indication now is that a majority of the Council is backing ending net asset purchases in June and hiking for a first time in July is already common place. And markets are attaching some probability to hikes larger than 25bp. The ECB has to increasingly grapple with potential de-anchoring of inflation expectations That does not mean that the known objections of the Council’s doves are invalid: too fast tightening being counterproductive, weighing on growth without being able to do anything about inflation driven by supply shocks. The line of reasoning still holds and explains market concerns reflected in current curve flattening. But the ECB has to increasingly grapple with potential de-anchoring of inflation expectations with some of the related measures already displaying notable shifts. This shift in some inflation expectation measures had been outlined by Isabel Schnabel in one of her more recent speeches. She had also highlighted the still very low level of real yields. This hawkish argument was also found in yesterday’s minutes, with real yields remaining low while the rise in nominal yields was not enough to dampen aggregate demand and bring down inflation in the medium term. Read next: Altcoins: What Is Litecoin (LTC)? A Deeper Look Into The Litecoin Platform| FXMAG.COM EUR real rates have a long way to go Source: Refinitiv, ING   It is worth noting that back around the April ECB meeting the 10Y swap rate was just below 1.6% versus a current level of 1.65%, although following a decent rally after a brief excursion above 2% earlier this month. Real rates remain deeply negative regardless of the maturity, and if this is a measure considered instrumental at reining in inflation over the medium term, then we may have to reckon with more upside to rates. The important question is whether the ECB will have enough time to realize its goals.   The ECB's "separation principle" is still lacking detail The "separation principle" referenced in the ECB accounts states the idea that monetary policy could be set independently from any measures designed to avoid disruptions triggered by any such policy tightening. More specifically to the current situation, Eurozone sovereign bond spreads could be managed while the ECB starts hiking. However, as of now the ECB has still not provided any details on how such a tool could look in practice. Beyond stating the need to keep flexibility and pointing to the potential use of pandemic emergency purchase programme reinvestments, it appears there is no desire to have a broader discussion on the topic just yet. With ECB plans still vague, Italian bonds especially remain vulnerable With ECB plans still vague, Italian government bonds especially remain vulnerable. In the current risk-off environment Italian bonds are still positively correlated with Bunds, ie, they do not trade as risk assets, but the spreads have started to rewiden towards 195bp in 10-year maturities. We still think the market could test out widening this spread towards 250bp before the ECB steps in. ECB plans remain vague, leaving Italian bond spreads vulnerable to further widening Source: Refinitiv, ING Today's events and market views In terms of data and events it will be a quieter session today. The main focus will be on central bank speakers with the ECB's Muller, Kazaks Lane, and Centeno all scheduled for the day. In the UK we will hear from the Bank of England's Chief Economist Huw Pill. Main data of note is the Eurozone consumer confidence. In this shaky risk environment, we expect bonds to retain their poise. It would take a lot of good news for yield upside to resume at the long-end, but central bankers should keep the heat on shorter rates. Read next: Altcoins: What Is Monero? Explaining XMR. Untraceable Cryptocurrency!? | FXMAG.COM Read this article on THINK TagsRates Daily Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more Follow FXMAG.COM on Google News
The Euro To The US dollar Pair May Move Upward

FX Daily: Dollar rally pauses for breath | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 20.05.2022 10:57
Some support measures for the Chinese economy and some stability in the Chinese renminbi have helped usher in a period of consolidation in FX markets. This may well last into next week, although we would consider this a pause not a reversal in the dollar's bull trend. The stronger dollar is also exporting Fed hikes around the world Not until the Fed pours cold water on tightening expectations should the dollar build a top USD: Some consolidation is in order The dollar is now about 2% off its highs seen late last week. Driving that move has probably been some position liquidation and a preference for currencies like the Japanese yen (JPY) and the Swiss franc (CHF) during turbulent times in global equity markets. In fact, yesterday's FX activity looked like the big sell-off in EUR/CHF on Swiss National Bank (SNB) comments which triggered downside stops in USD/CHF and prompted a slightly broader dollar adjustment. Also helping this period of consolidation has been this week's stability in the Chinese renminbi (CNY). The overnight 15bp cut in the 5-year Loan Prime Rate – aimed at supporting the property sector – has instilled a little more confidence in Chinese assets markets. However, we cannot see USD/CNY heading straight back to 6.50. Instead, a 6.65-6.80 trading range may be developing after the recent CNY devaluation.  However, the emerging market environment still looks challenged given that the stronger dollar is effectively exporting tighter Fed policy around the world. Yesterday we saw rate hikes in Egypt, South Africa, and the Philippines. After devaluing the Egyptian pound by 15% in March, authorities there are very much struggling with the external environment. This has seen Egypt's 5-year Sovereign Credit Default swap rise to news highs of 940bp and is a reminder of the challenge North Africa faces from surging food prices. For today, the data calendar is relatively quiet and there may be some interest in what G7 finance ministers and central bank governors have to say after their meeting in Bonn. Reports suggest Japan would like some tweaks to the final G7 communique, but we very much doubt there will be any change in the core FX language that FX rates be market-determined and that excessive volatility and disorderly moves be avoided. DXY could correct a little lower to 102.30, but we see this as bull market consolidation, rather than top-building activity. Not until the Fed pours cold water on tightening expectations should the dollar build a top. And yesterday Fed hawk, Esther George, said that even this 'rough week' in equity markets would not blow the Fed off course.  EUR: ECB hawks in control Minutes of the April ECB meeting released yesterday show that the hawks are calling the shots. The market now prices a 31/32bp ECB rate hike at the 21 July ECB meeting – pricing which has plenty of scope to bounce between +25bp and +50bp over the next two months. This could drag EUR/USD back to the 1.0650/70 area over the coming days – helped by brief periods of calm in the external environment – but as above we would see this as a bear market bounce. Our core EUR/USD view for 2H22 is one of heightened volatility and probably EUR/USD getting close to parity in 3Q22 when expectations of the Fed tightening cycle could be at their zenith. Read next: Altcoins: What Is PancakeSwap (CAKE)? A Deeper Look Into The PancakeSwap Platform| FXMAG.COM GBP: April retail sales provide a reprieve UK retail sales have come in a little better than expected and break/suspend the narrative that the cost of living squeeze is large enough to derail the Bank of England tightening cycle. We would not get carried away with the sterling recovery, however. Sterling is showing a high correlation with risk assets – trading as a growth currency – and the outlook for risk assets will remain challenging for the next three to six months probably. Here's what our credit strategy team thinks of the European outlook.  Cable may struggle to breach the 1.2500/2550 area and 1.20 levels are very possible over the coming months. New-found hawkishness at the ECB means that EUR/GBP may struggle to sustain a move below 0.8450 before returning to 0.8600. Read next: Altcoins: What Is Litecoin (LTC)? A Deeper Look Into The Litecoin Platform| FXMAG.COM CHF: SNB policy makes the case for EUR/CHF sub 1.00 next year As we discuss in an article released yesterday, it looks like the SNB is targeting a stable real exchange rate to fight inflation. Given that Switzerland's inflation is roughly 4% lower than key trading partners, a stable real exchange rate means that the nominal exchange rate needs to be 4% stronger. This will be an added factor supporting the CHF over the coming months and may start to generate interest in trades positioning for a lower GBP/CHF. 1.2080 is a big support level but 1.1860 looks like the near-term target. Read this article on THINK TagsGBP FX Daily ECB CHF Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The EUR/USD Pair Resumed Its Drop And Could Drop Deeper

Fighting With The EU Inflation. Naturally, Strong Euro (EUR) Would Help | Why some ECB officials are suddenly concerned about the weak euro | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 23.05.2022 08:30
Several European Central Bank officials have become more vocal, showing their concern about the weakening euro. As much as we think that these concerns are overdone, strengthening the euro could for the ECB currently be the single most efficient way to temper inflation quickly   In recent days, ECB officials have become more vocal with their concerns about the weak euro. French central bank governor, Villeroy de Galhau, pointed out that a weaker euro would undermine the ECB’s goal of price stability. ECB Executive Board member, Isabel Schnabel, was quoted saying that the ECB was closely monitoring the impact of the weaker euro on inflation. This is in stark contrast with the minutes of the ECB meeting in April, when the exchange rate was only mentioned four times. There was also market speculation that major central banks could go for a kind of Plaza Agreement, using coordinated action and even fx interventions to stop the US dollar from strengthening further and the euro from weakening further. How much of a concern should the recent weakening of the euro really be for the ECB? Since the last ECB staff projections in March, the euro has lost some 5% against the US dollar. The trade weighted euro exchange rate lost almost 2%. However, compared with one year ago, the euro has depreciated by more than 13% vis-à-vis the US dollar and around 6% in trade-weighted terms. In normal times, this weakening of the currency would have been a welcome relief for eurozone exports but at the current juncture it is an additional inflation concern. According to standard estimates, the euro depreciation since March could add another 10 percentage points on inflation this year and 20pp next year. However, at a time in which the main inflationary drivers are energy and commodity prices, which are invoiced in US dollar, the impact of the weaker euro on inflation might be even stronger. With headline inflation rates above 7%, it is hard to see why some ECB officials are concerned about a few additional percentage points. The weak euro might not be the reason for high inflation but it is at least reinforcing it. The main reason why ECB officials have become more vocal on the exchange rate could be the fact that even if higher policy rates will not bring down energy prices or fill containers in Asia, higher policy rates could strengthen the euro. The so-called exchange rate channel could at the current juncture be the most, and probably only, efficient way to ease inflationary pressures relatively quickly. This is why the hawks at the ECB might be inclined to use the currency as an argument to support a 50bp rate hike in July and strong forward guidance that more rate hikes are to come. Expect more than the four references to the exchange rate at the April meeting in the coming weeks ahead of the ECB’s 9 June meeting. Read this article on THINK TagsMonetary policy Eurozone ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
FX: (GBP/USD) British Pound To US Dollar May Shock You!

Eurozone: PMI drops slightly as inflation pressures remain | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 24.05.2022 14:22
Eurozone: PMI drops slightly as inflation pressures remain The composite PMI fell from 55.8 to 54.9 in May, still signalling decent expansion. With inflation pressures remaining close to all-time highs, this keeps hawkish pressure on the ECB to act quickly despite growth concerns Christine Lagarde, president of the European Central Bank   Squeezed purchasing power, weak consumer confidence, and tightening financial conditions are just a few of the headwinds the eurozone is facing at the moment. Nevertheless, the PMI doesn’t indicate that this is translating into a contracting economy so far, but we do see the first signs of weakness coming through. This is mainly because of the service sector still profiting from fading pandemic restrictions. The May data showed some weakening as the service sector PMI fell from 57.7 to 56.3. While still signalling strong expansion, it is a sign that the reopening boom has started to fade. The manufacturing PMI signalled stalling growth in April, but the indicator improved modestly in May from 50.7 to 51.2. Bugged by input shortages related to the war in Ukraine and lockdowns in China, the sector is having problems with production. At the same time, new orders also decreased for the first time since mid-2020, showing early demand concerns. Inflationary pressures are barely abating though. Input costs have slightly dropped from record highs, and selling price expectations remain close to April’s record high. Some early signs of improvement are unlikely to translate quickly into a fading inflation rate. Moreover, hiring intentions remain strong for now, which will add to labour shortages and subsequently to wage pressures. For the ECB, this is a hawkish signal. The growth outlook is clearly worsening, but the current impact of high inflation and the war is not yet contractionary according to the survey. We have seen ECB doves pushing back at a 50 basis point hike in July, but this PMI release will likely continue the conversation about whether President Christine Lagarde’s promise of no more negative rates by the end of 3Q will already be accomplished at the July meeting, or whether it will be 25bp in July and again in September. The next stop in terms of the ECB's data-driven lift-off is May inflation data, due out next week. Read this article on THINK TagsInflation GDP Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Spanish PMI Manufacturing Index Hit 52.6! Are People In Spain Worried About Inflation?

Hawkish European Central Bank (ECB)? (Euro To British Pound) EUR/GBP – Further gains to come? | Oanda

Craig Erlam Craig Erlam 24.05.2022 19:57
Hawkish ECB boost the single currency The ECB will become the latest central bank to concede on the inflation argument and raise rates in July and September The euro has caught a strong bid against the pound in recent days on the back of some very hawkish commentary from the ECB and poor economic data in the UK. The ECB will become the latest central bank to concede on the inflation argument and raise rates in July and September, as per President Christine Lagarde’s blog, although some support an even more aggressive approach. That’s boosted the euro at a time when the UK economy is facing the prospect of a recession, with PMI data today highlighting the struggles already appearing in the all-important services sector. EURGBP has rallied strongly on the back of this, holding above the 200/233-day SMA band in the process and pushing a breakout of the recent highs. It also broke above the 55/89-period SMA band on the 4-hour chart in the process which has capped its rallies over the last week. Read next: Altcoins: Ripple Crypto - What Is Ripple (XRP)? Price Of XRP | FXMAG.COM The next test for the pair is 0.86 and 0.8650 which has been a key area of resistance on numerous occasions over the last year, with 0.87 potentially offering further resistance above. Eventually, the euro area and others will likely be dragged into the recession conversation which may see the bullish case wane but for now, it’s interest rates that are dominating the conversation and giving the euro a major lift. Follow FXMAG.COM on Google News This article is for general information purposes only. It is not investment advice or a solution to buy or sell securities. Opinions are the authors; not necessarily that of OANDA Corporation or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, officers or directors. Leveraged trading is high risk and not suitable for all. You could lose all of your deposited funds.
The Euro Can Locally Receive Support In The Market From Buyers, The Pound Is Oversold

What's It Going To Be Czech Krone (CZK), NZD, Euro (EUR), USD? | FX Daily: How hawkish is too hawkish? | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 25.05.2022 08:55
The RBNZ signalled a terminal rate around 4.0% in 2023, following a 50bp hike today. We suspect the rate projections may be too hawkish, but this is a story for the long run: for now, 50bp hikes should keep the NZD on track for a return to 0.70 by year-end. Elsewhere, USD may struggle to recover, but a move to 1.08-1.09 in EUR/USD is not our base case The Reserve Bank of New Zealand hiked rates by another 50bp to 2.0% today. Pictured: RBNZ Governor Adrian Orr USD: Risk sentiment remains the primary driver, but downside risks are smaller now The shockwaves that originated from the slump in US tech stocks yesterday seem to have been absorbed without too much trouble by global equity markets, although more signs of sentiment instability did take some steam off the rally in pro-cyclical currencies. The dollar has found some stabilisation after a negative start to the week and should, for now, continue to trade primarily in line with swings in global risk sentiment. Yesterday, new home sales in the US dropped much more than consensus, a first sign of how higher interest rates are starting to impact the US economy. The data also increases the significance of today’s mortgage application numbers, where another big drop (surely possible given the rising mortgage rates) would likely fuel concerns about an economic slowdown. After all, construction makes up 4% of GDP and retail sales are correlated with housing activity. It may be too soon for the dollar to start discounting a higher risk of US slowdown via the Fed rate expectations channel, but some grim mortgage application figures could contribute to the dollar's softish momentum if equities enjoy a session in the green as futures seem to suggest this morning. At the same time, we think that the downside potential for the dollar is shrinking, especially given a more balanced positioning after a widespread position squaring and a still supportive Fed story. When it comes to the Fed, markets will surely take a close look at the minutes from the May FOMC meeting this evening to gauge how much consensus there was about multiple 50bp increases over the summer and whether there were some dissents about ruling out 75bp hikes. We’ll also hear from Lael Brainard today. EUR: A move to 1.08-1.09 would be too stretched EUR/USD broke the 1.0700 mark yesterday, as markets probably feared a wider drop in the eurozone PMIs, which instead came in only slightly below consensus. The combination of some easing in stagflation-related concerns, hawkish re-pricing of ECB rate expectations, and a weak dollar momentum have all contributed to the recent EUR/USD rally. Now, it appears most of the positives are in the price, especially considering that markets are already pricing in 100bp of ECB tightening by year-end, and we think a consolidation looks more likely than an extension of the rally to the 1.08-1.09 region. The eurozone calendar doesn’t include market-moving data releases today, but there is a long line of scheduled ECB speakers to keep an eye on: Christine Lagarde and Klaas Knot in Davos, Robert Holtzmann, Pablo Hernández de Cos and Philip Lane elsewhere. NZD: Has the RBNZ gone too far with rate projection? The Reserve Bank of New Zealand hiked rates by another 50bp to 2.0% today – in line with market expectations – but delivered a substantial hawkish surprise with its updated rate projections, which signalled an even more aggressive front-loading of monetary tightening. The Bank now forecasts the policy rate at 3.25-3.50% by year-end (up from 2.25-2.50% in the February projections) and around 200bp of total tightening by the end of 2023 – therefore signalling a terminal rate around 4.0%. We start to suspect that the RBNZ might have gone too far on the hawkish side with its rate projections and could struggle to deliver on them, especially if we see a considerable cooling-off in the New Zealand housing market and a generalised global slowdown. That, however, is a story for the long run. In the short term, we have a near-guarantee that the RBNZ will deliver two more half-point hikes this summer, which should keep rate expectations anchored to the new RBNZ projections and allow NZD to maintain a wide rate differential against all other G10 currencies. Ultimately, this should fuel a return to 0.7000 in NZD/USD by 4Q22 or 1Q23 at the latest, in our view. However, the short-term outlook for NZD (and its ability to consolidate above 0.6500) remains strictly tied to swings in global risk sentiment and the Chinese economic outlook, which remains a major source of uncertainty. CZK: CNB intervenes rather verbally, but that may change soon Daily banking sector liquidity data over the past two weeks, during which the CNB has officially been intervening in the FX market, do not suggest significant central bank activity. This is in line with our expectation that the CNB's initial intervention was mainly verbal as in March. This was confirmed in an interview last week by Vice Governor Tomáš Nidetzký, who indicated that the market does not want to fight the CNB. Nevertheless, the koruna continues to lose support from the interest rate differential, which has returned to the level of early May. Thus, in our view, the next CNB dovish move (for example the appointment of new board members, new governor forward guidance) will require a more aggressive approach by the central bank in the FX market if it is serious about intervening. We continue to expect the central bank to keep the koruna below 25 EUR/CZK and, given the again surprisingly high CPI prints, may try to get the koruna closer to 24. However, we still don't have much indication of what will happen with interventions after 1 June, when the new board's term begins. Aside from the name of the new governor, we have no indication yet as to who else will be appointed to the board. In our view, this will be a topic for next month and we expect to know the composition of the new board before the CNB meeting in June. Read this article on THINK TagsRBNZ NZD GBP CZK Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The AUD/USD Currency Pair Trading At Its Lowest Level Since Two Years, Hang Seng Index Was Flat

US stocks snap 7-day downtrend. Commodity stocks in wheat, energy and lithium brighten | Saxo Bank

Saxo Bank Saxo Bank 24.05.2022 14:34
Summary:  A technical rally occurred overnight, seeing the S&P500 gain after 7 days of declines, while Agriculture and Energy stocks shone the most, gaining even more momentum proving they are an inflation hedge. In quality tech, Apple shares rose 4% with long-term investors dripping in buy orders. Meanwhile, in big banks JPMorgan gained 6% upon forecasting net interest income to rise, which supported gains in Bank of America, Citigroup. We don’t think the market is at breaking point yet. However see Commodity gains intensifying and offering further upside, as the world worries global wheat supplies could run out in 10 weeks, while demand for lithium batteries rises seeing lithium companies upgrade their earnings and rally. What’s happening in markets that you need to know Big picture themes? Of the Equity Baskets we track across different sectors, we can see select risk appetite is starting to come back in to the market; China’s little giants are up the most month-to-date, supported by China’s fresh interest rate cut. Meanwhile, Cybersecurity stocks were up overnight (but are still down 24% YTD). Year-to-date though, our high conviction asset class, Commodities continues to see the most growth, followed by Defence. In the S&P500 oversold Ag and Bank stocks shine; Agri and Farm Tech stocks were up the most overnight, followed by Diversified Banks. In terms of standout stocks; Ross Stores and Deere (DE) rose the most (9%, 7%), after being two of the most oversold stocks last week. In S&P500 Deer was THE most oversold member. Deer makes 65% of its revenue from Agricultural equipment and selling turf. Earnings are expected to grind higher in 2022 and Deer pays a small dividend yield (1.25%). Asia Pacific’s stocks are trading mixed following more Tech disappointment in the US. While risk sentiment was upbeat overnight on Wall Street, Asia Pac’s markets turned most lower following Snap’s warning that it is unlikely to meet revenue and profit forecasts. Tech sentiment eroded again and further consumer staples earnings results this week are keeping investors cautious. Australia’s ASX200 trades flat, weight by tech falling,  with Block (SQ) down 6% after Bitcoin trades under $30k (Block makes most of its money from BTC transactions). Meanwhile, ASX lithium stocks continue to surge, supported by the new Australian government’s EV stimulus, seeing Liontown (LTR), Allkem (AKE), MinRes (MIN), Pilbara (PLS) dominate the leaderboard and rise 3-4%. Japan’s Nikkei (NI225.I) is down 0.3% led by Recruit (6098) which operates the popular HR engine “Indeed” and company information website “Glassdoor”. Singapore’s STI index (ES3) was however up 0.2% despite a record high inflation and a potential chicken-price shock. Read next: Stablecoins In Times Of Crypto Crash. What is Terra (UST)? A Deep Look Into Terra Altcoin. Terra - Leading Decentralised And Open-Source Public Blockchain Protocol | FXMAG.COM Chinese and Hong Kong equites see lackluster trading despite incremental stimulus measures from the State Council and Biden’s remarks on reviewing tariffs on goods from China.   The attempt to rally in the opening hour in response to positive news of 33 stimulus measures from China’s State Council failed.  Overnight news that Biden will discuss with Treasury Secretary Yellen about reviewing tariffs on goods from China as part of the Biden administration’s effort to ease U.S. inflationary pressures did not incur much excitement. Hang Seng Index (HSI.I) fell 0.8% and CSI300(000300.I) was 0.3% lower. Among the 33 measures was a reduction of RMB60 billion in the purchase tax on passenger cars Great Wall.  Great Wall Motor (02333), Geely (00175) and Guangzhou Automobile (02238) rose 3% to 10% while shares of EV makers fell 3%-9%.  Although reporting a larger than expected 159% YoY increase in revenues and a 30bp improvement of gross margins to 10.4% in Q1, XPeng’s (09868) share fell almost 9% on cautious Q2 guidance.  What to consider? Fed speakers remaining flexible. Fed’s Bostic backed a series of 50bps rate hike moves overnight but hinted at a pause in September if inflation comes down but also opened doors to more aggressive moves if inflation doesn’t cool. Fed’s George said she expects the central bank to raise interest rates to 2% by August (which also means about 100-125bps of rate hikes from the current 0.75-1% rates or 2-3 50bps rate hikes). While the base effects may make headline inflation appear to be softening into the summer, real price pressures aren’t going anywhere and Fed’s hiking pace is likely to continue to prove to be slow. AUD and NZD unable to sustain gains. A fresh slide was seen in NZD this morning following the unexpected decline in retail spending reported today. RBNZ decision is due tomorrow  (in early Asian hours) and it is still a close call between 25 and 50bps rate hike. But it’s more important to note that RBNZ is way ahead of other central banks and getting close to neutral faster than others, which means room for further upside in NZD is limited. AUDUSD is also back below 0.7100 and remains prone to a reversal in risk sentiment more than any domestic developments. While the AUDUSD rose to a 3-week high yesterday, supported by the Australian Labor Government being sworn in after winning the election and bringing in an EV policy ($2k tax incentives), vowing to keep Defense Spending at over 2% of GPD and pledging to offer more childcare support to keep employment high. The USD will likely remain favored for now as risk aversion returns and cut the rally of the AUD.  ECB getting ready to move to exit negative rates. ECB President Lagarde’s comment that the central bank is likely to exit negative rates by the end of the third quarter put a massive bid into the EUR overnight but the pair turned lower from 1.0700 with focus on Fed Chair Powell and PMIs due today. With Fed comments getting repetitive, there is room for ECB’s hawkishness to support the EUR even as Lagarde continues to downplay the possibility of a 50bps rate hike. Germany’s economy shows signs of unexpectedly strengthening in May. Germany’s IFO reading was out at 93.0 versus prior 91.9 in April. The increase is mostly explained by an improved current assessment. The expectations component is almost unchanged and close to levels last seen at the start of the pandemic. Several factors are pushing respondents to be careful regarding the future: supply chain frictions, the Shanghai lockdown, persistent inflationary pressures and lower real disposable incomes of households etc. The German economy will not plunge as it did at the start of the pandemic, of course. But we think that risks of a stagflation are clearly titled on the upside. We will watch closely the first estimate of the May PMIs this morning to have a better assessment of the economic situation in Germany and in the rest of the eurozone.  Potential trading ideas to consider? Singapore’s inflation pain is rising. Core CPI was at a decade high in April at 3.3%, and this is still not a peak. Singapore’s national lunch meal chicken rice is set to get expensive as Malaysia is halting exports of chicken. About 34% of Singapore's chicken imports come from Malaysia. While alternate sources of fresh chicken and options such as frozen chicken may be possible, this is not the last inflation shock to hit the island economy. Vegetable prices are also on the rise due to shortages of supply and the high fertilizer prices. In times like this, we would reiterate the possible inflation hedges remain gold, REITs and commodities. In summary, it is important to look for value investments or stocks that have a solid cash flow generation ability and pricing power but still priced below their fair value. The plot for investing in Lithium thickens.Lithium remains one of our preferred metal exposures for 2022 for upside. Albemarle Corp, the world’s largest lithium producer upgraded its outlook for the second time this month expecting higher lithium prices and demand to further boost their sales. We’ve seen many EV companies sell out of some of their electric vehicles, and this highlights the lack of supply in battery metals, which is also pushing up the lithium price. Albemarle Corp, expects sales to now be as high as $6.2 billion this year, up from its previous estimate of up to $5.6 billion. Read next: Altcoins: What Is Litecoin (LTC)? A Deeper Look Into The Litecoin Platform| FXMAG.COM If have a long time horizon for investing, you could consider dripping money into the market (this is called dollar cost averaging). Remember Shelby Davis said you can make most of your money in a bear market, you just don’t realize it at the time. But the key is to look at quality names that are in a position to return cash to shareholders. So if you want to be in tech for example, you could look at names like Apple, Microsoft and Google, who lead the S&P500 and Nasdaq indices and are growing their earnings and this is likely to continue over the next several years and longer term. The idea is that names like these, will likely lead a secular bull market, once the Market eventually begins to recover. And you ideally want to be in names with growing earnings, rather than throwing darts at some of those names with patchy results that are akin to Ark innovation ETF for example. China’s State Council announced 33 stimulus measures.  An additional VAT credit refund of RMB140 billion brings the overall target of tax refunds, tax cuts and fee reductions to RMB2.64 trillion in 2022.  China is also introducing a reduction of RMB60 billion (equivalent to about 17% of auto purchase tax last year) in tax on passenger car purchases.  The Government is increasing its supports to the aviation industry and railway construction via special bond issuance and loans and is rolling out a series of energy projects.  It is doubling the lending quota for banks to lend to SMEs and allow certain borrowers to postpone repayments.  The State Council also reiterates its support to promote legal and compliant listings of platform companies in domestic as well as overseas markets. Key company earnings to watch this week: Tuesday: Kuaishou Technology, Intuit, NetEase, AutoZone, Agilent Technologies Wednesday: Bank of Nova Scotia, Bank of Montreal, SSE, Acciona Energias Renovables, Nvidia, Snowflake, Splunk Thursday: Royal Bank of Canada, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Lenovo, Alibaba, Costco, Medtronic, Marvell Technology, Baidu, Autodesk, Workday, VMware, Dell Technologies, Dollar Tree, Zscaler, Farfetch Friday: Singapore Telecommunications   For a global look at markets – tune into our Podcast.  Follow FXMAG.COM on Google News Source: Saxo Bank
Forex: Market Is Dependent On Fed's Shortly Message

(EUR) Euro Rally Hits A Wall! | Is EUR/USD Going To Decline Again!? | Oanda

Kenny Fisher Kenny Fisher 25.05.2022 16:09
Euro falls sharply The euro has reversed directions on Wednesday and is sharply lower. In the European session, EUR/USD is trading at 1.0663, down 0.67% on the day. The euro was up 1.29% on Monday and extended its gains on Tuesday, hitting a 4-week high, after ECB President Lagarde announced that the ECB would raise interest rates in July. On the data front, there weren’t any surprises out of Germany. GDP in Q1 rose by 0.2% QoQ, as expected. Compared to Q4 of 2019, the quarter prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, growth was 0.9% smaller, which means that the economy is yet to fully recover from the Covid crisis. The war in Ukraine and Covid-19 have resulted in supply chain disruptions and accelerating inflation, which has hampered economic growth. German confidence remains in deep-freeze German GfK Consumer Sentiment came in at -26.0 in May, a slight improvement from the April reading of -26.6, which marked a record low. Not surprisingly, consumers put the blame for their deep pessimism on two key factors – the conflict in Ukraine and spiralling inflation. The GfK survey also found that consumer spending has weakened, as high costs for food and energy have reduced spending on non-essential items. Read next: Altcoins: What Is Polkadot (DOT)? Cross-Chain Transfers Of Any Type Of Asset Or Data. A Deeper Look Into Polkadot Protocol | FXMAG.COM The ECB Financial Stability Review, published twice a year, echoed what German consumers are saying. The report bluntly stated that financial stability conditions have deteriorated in the eurozone, as the post-Covid recovery has been tested by higher inflation and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The report noted that the economic outlook for the eurozone had weakened, with inflation and supply disruptions representing significant headwinds for the eurozone economy. Given this challenging economic landscape, the euro will be hard-pressed to keep pace with the US dollar. EUR/USD Technical There is resistance at 1.0736 and 1.0865 EUR/USD is testing support at 1.0648. The next support line is at 1.0519 This article is for general information purposes only. It is not investment advice or a solution to buy or sell securities. Opinions are the authors; not necessarily that of OANDA Corporation or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, officers or directors. Leveraged trading is high risk and not suitable for all. You could lose all of your deposited funds.
Forex Market: Technical Analysis - Euro To US Dollar - 26/07/22

EUR/USD Performs Quite Well, Euro Is Supported By ECB. US Jobless Data Incoming, So Does NFP- How Will They Affect (USD) US Dollar Index (DXY)? Bank Of Canada (BoC) May Boost Canadian Dollar (CAD)! Is It Time To Buy (AMZN) Amazon Stock? | Swissquote

Swissquote Bank Swissquote Bank 30.05.2022 10:03
The week starts on a positive note after the rally we saw in the US stocks before last week’s closing bell. European futures hint at a positive open. The US 10-year yield stabilized around the 2.75% mark, and the US dollar index is now back to its 50-DMA level, giving some sigh of relief to the FX markets overall. Bonds and Equities One interesting thing is that we observe that the equities and bonds stopped moving together since the 10-year yield hit 3% threshold, suggesting that investors started moving capital to less risky bonds if they quit equities, instead of selling everything and sitting on cash. Read next: Altcoins: Ripple Crypto - What Is Ripple (XRP)? Price Of XRP | FXMAG.COM US Jobs Data, Expensive Crude Oil   That’s one positive sign in terms of broader risk appetite and should help assessing a bottom near the actual levels. But the end of the equity selloff depends on economic data. Released on Friday, the US PCE index fell from 6.6 to 6.3% in April. Due this week, the US jobs data, and the wages growth will take the center stage in the Fed talk. Weak dollar pushes the major peers higher, but the rising oil prices preoccupy investors this Monday. The barrel of US crude is above $117, and the news flow suggests further positive pressure. But till where?   Watch the full episode to find out more! 0:00 Intro 0:24 Market update 1:04 Equity, bond correlation is down since US 10-yield hit 3%! 2:58 Economic data is key: what to watch this week? 4:22 BoC to raise rates 5:09 EURUSD pushes higher 6:10 Oil under positive pressure: OPEC, UK windfall tax 9:19 Corporate calendar: GME, HP earnings, Amazon stock split Ipek Ozkardeskaya has begun her financial career in 2010 in the structured products desk of the Swiss Banque Cantonale Vaudoise. She worked at HSBC Private Bank in Geneva in relation to high and ultra-high net worth clients. In 2012, she started as FX Strategist at Swissquote Bank. She worked as a Senior Market Analyst in London Capital Group in London and in Shanghai. She returned to Swissquote Bank as Senior Analyst in 2020. Follow FXMAG.COM on Google News
Weekly analysis on Bitcoin.  Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/285670

In Times Of Hawkish ECB, This Week's Eurozone Inflation Plays A Vital Role, As Euro (EUR) May Need Some Boosting, So Does Hungarian Forint (HUF)... On Tuesday We Meet HP Earnings, So Better Let's Watch HP Stock Price Closely! | Saxo Bank

Saxo Bank Saxo Bank 30.05.2022 11:01
What is going on US core PCE prices.  US core PCE data was out on Friday, and it came in as expected at 4.9% y/y and 0.3% m/m. This was slower than last month's 5.2% y/y and may prompt more talk of inflation peaking out. While PCE is the preferred Fed metric, what cannot be ignored right now is that food and energy prices still have more room to run on the upside suggesting that inflation will remain higher for longer. The May CPI print is due on June 10, so that will be the next one on the radar for further cues in terms of Fed's rate hike trajectory but for this week, the focus will be on the jobs report due on Friday Goldman predicts end of battery metal bull market – saying that the prices for key battery metals cobalt, lithium and nickel will fall over the next two years after an over-eager speculation phase. Goldman predicts that lithium prices could drop slightly this year to $54k from recent spot prices near $60k and fall to near $16k in 2023 before rising again further down the road. There’s been “a surge in investor capital into supply investment tied to the long-term EV demand story, essentially trading a spot driven commodity as a forward-looking equity,” the analysts said. “That fundamental mispricing has in turn generated an outsized supply response well ahead of the demand trend.” Oil prices are becoming an important cross-asset driver.  Brent crude oil closed last week just shy of the $120/barrel level (see above) and also just shy of the highest weekly close for the front month contract since the outbreak of war in Ukraine. As the $120 area was often a resistance area during the high oil price period during 2011-14 (although at that time, the US dollar was far weaker), any further significant advance from here will likely dominate market attention and work against further strong improvements in risk sentiment as high energy prices cloud the growth outlook and would erode corporate profit margins. Read next: Altcoins: Ripple Crypto - What Is Ripple (XRP)? Price Of XRP | FXMAG.COM Benchmark Capital and Sequoia Capital put out a dim outlook for technology.  Both venture capital firms were around during the dot-com bubble run-up and burst, and they have both put out perspective and action plans for the companies they have invested in. Those presentations talk about a much dimmer outlook and investors are shifting focus from revenue growth and revenue multiples to that of free cash flow here and now. Cost-cutting and focus on profitable unit metrics are now paramount to survive the coming years. What are we watching next? US Memorial Day Holiday today. This is a major national holiday, so all US markets are closed today. Read next: Altcoins: Tether (USDT), What Is It? - A Deeper Look Into The Tether Blockchain| FXMAG.COM Eurozone inflation prints out this week.  The energy price shock has been bigger for Europe, and May prints are due for Spain, Germany, France, Italy and the Euro-area in the week ahead. Food price pressures continue to build up amid the supply shortages and protectionist measures, and further gains in May will add more weight to the ECB’s resolve to exit negative rates from Q3 with more aggressive tightening. Special meeting of the European Council today and tomorrow.  Talks will focus on the implementation of a proposed embargo on oil imports from Russia (from 2024 onwards according to the latest draft). Hungary is the only EU country against it. The problem is that any new sanctions against Russia require the unanimous agreement of the 27 member states in order to pass. Expect tough negotiations. Hungary’s Prime minister Viktor Orban has recently passed on a “wish list” of demands he wants met to support oil sanctions. This includes a swap line with the European Central Bank and end to the rule of law Article 7 and “conditionality mechanism” procedures, amongst other things. Australian GPD and balance of trade on watch and could disappoint.  Australian GPD data due Wednesday is expected to show economic growth fell from 4.2% YoY to 3% YoY in Q1. Quarterly GPD is expected to grow just 0.7%, following the 3.4% rise in Q4. If data is stronger than what consensus expects, the RBA has more ammunition to rise rates more than forecast, so the AUDUSD might rally. If GPD is weaker, then, the AUD will likely fall. For equities, Australian financials could rally if data is stronger than expected. Secondly, Australian Export and Import data is released Thursday. The market expects Australia’s surplus income (Export income minus imports payments) to rise from $9.4b to $9.5b in April. But given the iron ore price fell 13% in April, the trade data could miss expectations. Follow FXMAG.COM on Google News Several central banks in focus this week.  Tomorrow, the National Bank of Hungary (NBH) will likely deliver a hike of 50 basis points to 5.9 %. The NBH has recently flagged a slowdown in the pace of rate hikes which had a detrimental impact on the Hungarian currency. What the central bank needs to do now is to define more explicitly the risks to growth, the effect that it would have on inflation this year but especially in 2023, the pace of rate hike and how financing conditions could evolve in the next 12-18 months. On Wednesday, the Bank of Canada is expected to increase interest rates by 50 basis points, from 1% to 1.5% (it has downplayed the possibility of a 75-basis-point hike in the short term). The move has already been priced in the market. Further interest hikes will come in the coming months in order to fight inflation which is running at a 31-year high of 6.8% YoY in April. Last week, former Bank of Canada governor Stephen Poloz mentioned the risk that the country will fall into stagflation this year. Earnings Watch.  This week’s earnings releases are weak in terms of impact expect from earnings from Salesforce, Lululemon and Meituan. Analysts are expecting Salesforce to report FY23 Q1 revenue (ending 30 April) growth of 24% y/y on top of a significant operating margin expansion expected to boost free cash flow generation substantially. Monday: Sino Biopharmaceutical, Huazhu Group Tuesday: DiDi Global, Salesforce, HP, KE Holdings Wednesday: Acciona Energias Renovables, China Resources Power, Veeva Systems, HP Enterprise, MongoDB, NetApp, Chewy, GameStop, UiPath, SentinelOne, Elastic, Weibo Thursday: Trip.com, Pagseguro Digital, Remy Cointreau, Toro, Cooper Cos, Meituan, Crowdstrike, Lululemon, Okta, RH, Asana, Hormel Foods Economic calendar highlights for today (times GMT) 0900 – Euro zone Economic, Industrial, Services Confidence surveys 1200 – Germany May Flash CPI 1500 – US Fed’s Waller (Voter) to speak 1700 – ECB's Nagel to speak 2030 – New Zealand RBNZ’s Hawkesby to speak 2300 – South Korea Apr. Industrial Production 2330 – Japan Apr. Jobless Rate 2350 – Japan Apr. Jobless Rate 2350 – Japan Apr. Industrial Production 0030 – New Zealand May ANZ Business Confidence survey 0130 – China May Manufacturing/Non-manufacturing PMI 0130 – Australia Apr. Building Approvals 0130 – Australia Apr. Private Sector Credit Follow SaxoStrats on the daily Saxo Markets Call on your favorite podcast app: Apple  Spotify PodBean Sticher Source: Saxo Bank
It Is Expected That The German Economy To Shrink Markedly

Powerful Euro Incoming? Is ECB's Rate Hike Sure!? German Inflation Is Almost 1% Higher What Can Stimulate European Central Bank (ECB) Monetary Policy Tightening! | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 30.05.2022 16:18
German inflation continues to accelerate, keeping alive the European Central Bank's discussion on a possible 50bp rate hike in July Record-high inflation in Germany has had an impact on consumers' budgeting and financial planning   German headline inflation surged once again as the war in Ukraine pushed up energy and commodity prices, and inflationary pressure broadens. According to a first estimate based on the regional inflation data, German headline inflation came in at 7.9% year-on-year in May, up from 7.4% YoY in April. The HICP measure came in at 8.7% YoY, from 7.8% in April. Unless there is a sharp downward correction of energy prices in the months ahead, German headline inflation will continue to increase and only start to level off in late summer. Still more inflation in the pipeline We've stopped digging out illustrations of the times when inflation in Germany was at comparable levels. Let’s put it like this: most citizens and policymakers have hardly ever seen these kinds of inflation rates in their professional lives. Sure, the surge in headline inflation is still dominantly driven by energy and commodity prices. However, looking at available regional data, the pass-through of these higher prices to the broader economy is in full swing. In some regional states, food inflation was already at double-digit levels and prices for leisure activities, hospitality, and more general services have been accelerating in recent months. The inflation rate for these items is far above the European Central Bank's 2% target. In fact, in April only 17 out of the 94 main components of the German inflation basket had inflation rates of 2% or less. The only significant U-turn in the upward inflation trend was in packaged holidays. However, this was rather driven by the so-called Easter Bunny effect (the timing of the Easter break) and not so much by disinflationary trends. Consequently, any drop in core inflation on the back of lower packaged holidays inflation will be temporary. Looking ahead, the fact that monthly price increases are still far above their historic average (0.9% month-on-month in May compared with 0.2% in a ‘normal’ May) illustrates the high inflationary pipeline pressure. As much as we would like to see a levelling off in inflation rates, with the war in Ukraine and continued tension and upward pressure on energy, commodity and food prices, headline inflation in Germany will accelerate further in the coming months. We think that the pass-through to all kinds of sectors is still in full swing. Add to this the additional price mark-ups in the hospitality, culture and leisure sectors after the end of lockdowns and it is hard to see inflation coming down significantly any time soon. Against the backdrop of recent geopolitical events, we now expect German inflation to average at more than 8% this year with a chance that monthly inflation rates will enter double-digit territory in the summer. ECB 50bp rate hike not off the table The ECB has clearly passed the stage of discussing whether and even when policy rates should be increased. The only discussion seems to be on whether the ECB should start with a 25bp rate hike in July or 50bp. In this regard, it is quite remarkable that both ECB president Christine Lagarde and ECB chief economist Philip Lane have tried to take back control of this particular discussion. In an interview released this morning, Philip Lane definitely broke with the previous ECB communication strategy to never pre-commit. Instead, he spelled out the roadmap for normalising monetary policy, de facto announcing an the end of net asset purchases in early July, a 25bp rate hike at the ECB meeting of 21 July and another 25bp rate hike at the September meeting. There is nothing wrong with the content of his remarks as it is exactly what we have already been expecting the ECB to do. However, a de facto pre-announcement almost two months ahead of the 21 July meeting is remarkable, to say the least. In any case, as today’s German inflation numbers mark an upside surprise for many, the debate on the magnitude of the first hike, be it 25bp vs 50bp, is not entirely off the table. If core inflation in the eurozone continues accelerating in May and June, Lane and Lagarde could still regret their new pre-commitment. Read this article on THINK TagsMonetary policy Inflation Germany ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The EUR/USD Pair Resumed Its Drop And Could Drop Deeper

Supporting EUR, USD And Others - What Is Interest Rate? What Is A Negative Interest Rate | Binance Academy

Binance Academy Binance Academy 01.06.2022 16:55
TL;DR It doesn’t make much sense to lend money for free. If Alice wants to borrow $10,000 from Bob, Bob will need a financial incentive to loan it to her. That incentive comes in the form of interest – a kind of fee that gets added on top of the amount Alice borrows. Interest rates profoundly impact the broader economy, as raising or lowering them greatly affects people’s behavior. Broadly speaking: Higher interest rates make it attractive to save money because banks pay you more for storing your money with them. It’s less attractive to borrow money because you need to pay higher amounts on the credit you take out. Lower interest rates make it attractive to borrow and spend money – your money doesn’t make much by sitting idle. What’s more, you don’t need to pay huge amounts on top of what you borrow. Learn more on Binance.com Introduction As we’ve seen in How Does the Economy Work?, credit plays a vital role in the global economy. In essence, it’s a lubricant for financial transactions – individuals can leverage capital that they don’t have available and repay it at a later date. Businesses can use credit to purchase resources, use those resources to turn a profit, then pay the lender. A consumer can take out a loan to purchase goods, then return the loan in smaller increments over time. Of course, there needs to be a financial incentive for a lender to offer credit in the first place. Often, they’ll charge interest. In this article, we’ll take a dive into interest rates and how they work.   What is an interest rate? Interest is a payment owed to a lender by a borrower. If Alice borrows money from Bob, Bob might say you can have this $10,000, but it comes with 5% interest. What that means is that Alice will need to pay back the original $10,000 (the principal) plus 5% of that sum by the end of the period. Her total repayment to Bob is, therefore, $10,500. So, an interest rate is a percentage of interest owed per period. If it’s 5% per year, then Alice would owe $10,500 in the first year. From there, you might have: a simple interest rate – subsequent years incur 5% of the principal or  a compounded interest rate – 5% of the $10,500 in the first year, then 5% of $10,500 + $525 = $11,025 in the second year, and so on.   Why are interest rates important? Unless you transact exclusively in cryptocurrencies, cash, and gold coins, interest rates affect you, like most others. Even if you somehow found a way to pay for everything in Dogecoin, you’d still feel their effects because of their significance within the economy. Take a commercial bank – their whole business model (fractional reserve banking) revolves around borrowing and lending money. When you deposit money, you’re acting as a lender. You receive interest from the bank because they lend your funds to other people. In contrast, when you borrow money, you pay interest to the bank. Commercial banks don’t have much flexibility when it comes to setting the interest rates – that’s up to entities called central banks. Think of the US Federal Reserve, the People’s Bank of China, or the Bank of England. Their job is to tinker with the economy to keep it healthy. One function they perform to these ends is raising or lowering interest rates. Think about it: if interest rates are high, then you’ll receive more interest for loaning your money. On the flip side, it’ll be more expensive for you to borrow, since you’ll owe more. Conversely, it isn’t very profitable to lend when interest rates are low, but it becomes attractive to borrow. Ultimately, these measures control the behavior of consumers. Lowering interest rates is generally done to stimulate spending in times when it has slowed, as it encourages individuals and businesses to borrow. Then, with more credit available, they’ll hopefully go and spend it. Lowering interest rates might be a good short-term move to rejuvenate the economy, but it also causes inflation. There’s more credit available, but the amount of resources remains the same. In other words, the demand for goods increases, but the supply doesn’t. Naturally, prices begin to rise until an equilibrium is reached. At that point, high interest rates can serve as a countermeasure. Setting them high cuts the amount of circulating credit, since everyone begins to repay their debts. Because banks offer generous rates at this stage, individuals will instead save their money to earn interest. With less demand for goods, inflation decreases – but economic growth slows.   ➟ Looking to get started with cryptocurrency? Buy Bitcoin on Binance!   What is a negative interest rate? Often, economists and pundits speak of negative interest rates. As you can imagine, these are sub-zero rates that require you to pay to lend money – or even to store it at a bank. By extension, it makes it costly for banks to lend. Indeed, it even makes it costly to save. This may seem like an insane concept. After all, the lender is the one assuming the risk that the borrower may not repay the loan. Why should they pay?  This is perhaps why negative interest rates are something of a last resort to fix struggling economies. The idea comes from a fear that individuals may prefer to hold onto their money during an economic downturn, preferring to wait until it recovers to engage in any economic activity.  When rates are negative, this behavior doesn’t make sense – borrowing and spending appear to be the most sensible choices. This is why negative interest rates are considered to be a valid measure by some, under extraordinary economic conditions.   Closing thoughts On the surface, interest rates appear to be a relatively straightforward concept to grasp.  Nevertheless, they’re an integral part of modern economies – as we’ve seen, adjusting them can fundamentally alter the behavior of individuals and businesses. This is why central banks take such a proactive role in using them to keep nations’ economies on track. Do you have more questions about interest rates and the economy? Check out our Q&A platform, Ask Academy, where the Binance community will answer your questions.
Canadian Dollar (CAD): Bank Of Canada Decides On Interest Rate Soon And It's Not That Obvious What They're Going To Do

Forex: US Dollar (USD) Is Being Supported, EUR/USD Affected By Ban On Russian Oil. Jubilee - British Pound (GBP) Is Going To Take A Rest Because Of Market Holidays In The UK, Canadians Await BoC's Decision | ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 01.06.2022 14:14
While our base case is that the Bank of Canada will hike by another 50bp today, the strong macro picture means that a 75bp move cannot be excluded. Elsewhere, data resilience and higher yields should lay the basis for a re-strengtheining of the dollar, and the contrast with a worsening growth picture in Europe may send EUR/USD back to 1.05 in June Source: Shutterstock   Thursday 2 June and Friday 3 June are national holidays in the UK. We will resume the publication of the FX Daily on Monday 6 June. USD: Finding fresh support The dollar has continued to find some support this morning, benefiting from a general sell-off in the bond market, the impact of the EU oil embargo on Russia, and better-than-expected US data (consumer confidence yesterday was a case in point). The past few days seem to have conveyed the message that the Fed’s tightening cycle is based on a sturdier growth story than Europe's (especially after the Russian oil embargo) and the speculation around a September Fed pause is being kept at bay for now. Ultimately, we think all this is laying the basis for a period of gradual re-strengthening in the dollar. Today, data will remain in focus in the US, as the ISM manufacturing and JOLTS job openings for May are released. On the Fed side, John Williams and the arch-hawk James Bullard are both scheduled to speak today, and markets will also keep an eye on regional trends emerging from the Fed’s Beige Book released this evening. All in all, we expect the dollar to find some consolidation and possibly inch higher against most G10 peers for the rest of the week, with the weak bond environment offering a short-term supporting driver (the yen is set to remain the main victim here) and US data - our economist expects another solid US payrolls reading on Friday - still supporting the Fed tightening story and offering a longer-term bullish USD argument. Some stabilisation in global sentiment may allow high-beta currencies – and especially oil-sensitive ones like Canada's dollar and Norway's krone - to find a floor, while other European currencies may remain on the back foot due to a worsening growth outlook in the region. DXY may advance to the 103.00 area in the run-up to the 15 June FOMC meeting. EUR: On track for a return to 1.05 EUR/USD is re-testing the 1.0700 support this morning after a marginal recovery late yesterday proved very temporary. Indeed, the common currency is discounting the re-assessment of the European economic outlook after the EU announced a ban on Russian oil. That news came in conjunction with evidence that inflationary pressures in the eurozone are still not easing, as eurozone-wide CPI figures for May jumped to 8.1% while the core rate advanced to 3.8% year-on-year. While high inflation is keeping the ECB tightening expectations supported, the euro – which is already embedding a good deal of monetary tightening – is struggling to find any solid bullish driver at the moment. In our view, this was a matter of time and we continue to target a return to the 1.0500 area in EUR/USD by the end of this month. Elsewhere in Europe, the Hungarian central bank raised its base rate by 50bp yesterday in line with market expectations, but didn't meet all expectations, including ours. Even the almost historically weak forint did not persuade the central bank to make a bolder move. We did get assurances that monetary policy tightening will continue, but at a slower pace regardless of market or economic conditions. Although the central bank tried to be as hawkish as possible in its communication, it was not enough for the market to reverse the forint's direction. The forint continues to be our least preferred currency at the moment, but on the other hand, still has the most potential to strengthen in the region. We see EUR/HUF around 390 in the short run with a possible quick move to 380 should one of the external factors (war, rule-of-law debate, etc.) show early signs of improvement, reducing the risk premium. GBP: Some weakness (but not a collapse) ahead The pound seems to have been caught in the crossfire of the EU-Russia oil embargo story, largely following other European currencies (except for NOK) lower. This has meant that EUR/GBP has remained tied to the 0.8500 level, which appears to be an anchor for the short term. Given a deteriorating growth outlook in the UK, we expect some GBP weakness ahead and see a move to 0.8600 in the coming weeks as likely. However, we do not see a sterling downtrend morphing into a collapse.   With UK markets closed for two days, expect reduced GBP volatility into the weekend. CAD: We expect 50bp by the BoC today, but 75bp is possible The Bank of Canada is set to raise interest rates for a third consecutive meeting today, and the Bank’s recent communication has strongly suggested we’ll see another 50bp hike. As discussed in our BoC preview, 50bp is also our base case scenario for today, given the strong economy (and an outlook helped by high commodity prices) and jobs market, as well as elevated inflation. Against such a macroeconomic backdrop, we don’t exclude a 75bp move: markets seem to attach a relatively high probability to this scenario given that 70bp are priced in ahead of today’s meeting. As we see a 50bp hike as more likely, there are some downside risks for CAD today, as markets may have to price some 10-20bp out of the CAD swap curve. That said, we think that the BoC will reiterate a very strong commitment to fighting inflation and allow markets to consolidate their bets on at least another 50bp hike in July and a terminal rate around 3.0%. Ultimately, this should put a floor under the loonie, which has been displaying some resilience against the USD rebound, and may not depreciate beyond the 1.2700-1.2750 area even if the 75bp bets have to be scaled back today. Read this article on THINK Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The Swing Overview - Week 22 2022

The Swing Overview - Week 22 2022

Purple Trading Purple Trading 07.06.2022 13:59
The Swing Overview - Week 22 Equity indices continued to rise for a second week despite rising inflation and sanctions against Russia. Economic data indicate optimistic consumer expectations and the easing of the Covid-19 measures in China also brought some relief to the markets. The Bank of Canada raised its policy rate to 1.5%. The Eurozone inflation hit a new record of 8.1%, giving further fuel to the ECB to raise interest rates, which is supporting the euro to strengthen.   Macroeconomic data The US consumer confidence in economic growth for May came in at 106.4. The market was expecting 103.9. This optimism points to an expected increase in consumer spendings, which is a positive development. The optimism was also confirmed by data from the manufacturing sector. The ISM PMI index in manufacturing rose by 56.1 in May, an improvement on the April reading of 55.4. The manufacturing sector is therefore expecting further expansion.   On the other hand, data from the labour market were disappointing. The ADP Non Farm Employment indicator (private sector job growth) was well below expectations as the economy created only 128k new jobs in May (the market was expecting 300k new jobs). The unemployment claims data held at the standard 200k level. However, the crucial indicator from the labour market will be Friday's NFP data.   Quarterly wage growth for 1Q 2022 was 12.6% (previous quarter was 3.9%). This figure is a leading indicator on inflation. Faster inflation growth could lead to a higher-than-expected 0.50% rate hike at the Fed's June meeting.   The US 10-year Treasury yields have rebounded from 2.6% and have started to rise again. They are currently around 2.9%. However, the US Dollar Index has not yet reacted to the rise in yields. The reason is that the euro, which has appreciated significantly in recent days, has the largest weight in the USD index. Figure 1: US 10-year bond yields and USD index on the daily chart   The SP 500 Index The SP 500 index has continued to strengthen in recent days. The market seems to be accepting the expected 0.50% rate hike and while economic data points to some slowdown, forward looking consumers‘ and managers’ expectations are optimistic.  Figure 2: The SP 500 on H4 and D1 chart   The US SP 500 index is approaching a significant resistance level, which is in the 4,197-4,204 range. The next one is at 4,293 - 4,306. The nearest support is at 4 075 - 4 086.    German DAX index Figure 3: German DAX index on H4 and daily chart Germany's manufacturing PMI for May came in at 54.8. The previous month it was 54, 6. Thus, managers expect expansion in the manufacturing sector. Surprisingly, German exports rose in April despite the disruption of trade relations with Russia. Exports in Germany grew by 4.4% even though exports to Russia fell by 10%.  The positive data has an impact on the DAX index. However, the bulls in DAX may be discouraged by the expected ECB interest rate hike.   The DAX has reached resistance in the 14,600 - 14,640 area. The nearest significant support is at 14,300 - 14,330, where the horizontal resistance is coincident with the moving average EMA 50 on the H4 chart.   The euro continues to rise Bulls on the euro were supported by inflation data, which reached a record high of 8.1% in the eurozone for the month of May. Inflation increased by 0.8% on a monthly basis compared to April. Information from the manufacturing sector exceeded expectations, with the manufacturing PMI for May coming in at 54.6, indicating optimism in the economy. The ECB will meet on Thursday 9/6/2022 and it might be surprising. While analysts do not expect a rate hike at this meeting, rising inflation may prompt the ECB to act faster.  Figure 4: The EUR/USD on H4 and daily chart The EUR/USD currency pair is reacting to the rate hike expectations by gradual strengthening. A resistance is at 1.0780 The nearest support is now at 1.0629 - 1.0640 and then at 1.0540 - 1.0550.   The Bank of Canada raised the interest rate The GDP in Canada for Q1 2022 grew by 2.89% year-on-year (3.23% in the previous period). On a month-on-month basis, the GDP grew by 0.7% (0.9% in February). This points to slowing economic growth.  Canada's manufacturing PMI for May came in at 56.8 (56.2 in April ), an upbeat development. The Bank of Canada raised its policy rate by 0.50% to 1.5% as expected by analysts. In addition to the rate hike, the Canadian dollar is positively affected by the rise in oil prices as Canada is a major exporter. Figure 5: The USD/CAD on H4 and daily chart The USD/CAD currency pair is currently in a downward movement. The nearest resistance according to the daily chart is 1.2710-1.2730. Support according to the daily chart is in the range of 1.2400-1.2470.  
What Transactions In The EUR/USD Pair  Look Like Today?

Eurozone May Experience Slowdown In Growth, But FX Pairs With EUR (EUR/USD, EUR/GBP) And Inflation Definitely Needs A Solution

ING Economics ING Economics 08.06.2022 16:12
Persistent headwinds are pushing the eurozone into a 'muddling through' scenario, and there is a high probability that the region will see one quarter of negative growth this year. But sticky inflation and higher inflation expectations will force the European Central Bank to abandon negative interest rates in the third quarter Muddling through? President of EU Commission Ursula von der Leyen and European Council President Charles Michel at a summit this week in Brussels Content Farewell to negative interest rates Mixed feelings Not exactly the roaring twenties Higher inflation expectations Farewell to negative interest rates In a blog on the ECB’s website, President Christine Lagarde brought forward the growing consensus that has been building within the governing council, namely that stickier-thanexpected inflation requires the quick removal of non-conventional policy measures. A first rate hike in July looks like a near certainty and a 50bp increase cannot be excluded, especially if core inflation comes in higher than expected in the run-up to the July meeting. In any case, negative rates will have disappeared come September. It now seems that the ECB wants to seize the window of opportunity to normalise monetary policy. This requires policymakers to walk a fine line between the rising inflation expectations and economic headwinds. Sentiment divergence between consumers and businesses Source: Refinitiv Datastream Mixed feelings The first quarter showed an upwardly revised 0.3% quarter-on-quarter growth rate, but the second quarter looks more of a conundrum. There is no hard data yet and the sentiment data has been rather inconsistent. Since the start of the war in Ukraine, consumer confidence has dropped to recessionary levels, with the May reading showing hardly any improvement. However, business confidence figures have held up better while still declining. The flash eurozone PMI composite index came in at 54.9, firmly above the boom-or-bust 50 level. This is largely on the back of a strong services sector, which seems to be benefiting from some post-pandemic catch-up demand. Indeed, holiday reservations are back or even above pre-pandemic levels. In the manufacturing sector, the deceleration is more obvious on the back of renewed supply chain problems, higher input prices, and falling orders. Not exactly the roaring twenties There is no clear weakening yet in the labour market, but wages, although rising a bit more rapidly now, are definitely not keeping pace with inflation. At the same time, oil prices are climbing on the back of a (partial) European boycott of Russian oil, further sapping households’ purchasing power. As such, we don’t think that consumption will be a strong growth driver in the coming quarters. And businesses might also become more cautious in their investment plans. That said, there still seems to be a willingness among governments to support the weakest households with fiscal measures. And as the European Commission has proposed extending the escape clause for the Stability and Growth Pact into 2023, not a lot of fiscal tightening should be expected for the time being. We still believe the second or the third quarter of this year might see negative growth. Thereafter, we think the growth pattern will be pretty much in 'muddlingthrough' mode. That should still result in 2.3% GDP growth in 2022 and 1.6% in 2023. Not a recession, but not exactly the roaring twenties either. And downside risk prevails. Both headline and core inflation continue to surpass expectations Source: Refinitiv Datastream Higher inflation expectations Barring a strong increase in natural gas prices amid fewer imports (or a stoppage of supply) from Russia, inflation is probably close to its peak. In May, headline inflation rose to 8.1%, with core inflation at 3.8%. We expect the decrease to be very gradual and it might take until the second half of 2023 before headline inflation falls back below 2%. At the same time, longerterm consumer inflation expectations have now seen an upward shift to 3% in the most recent survey, which explains why the ECB wants to get rates out of negative territory pretty soon. In an interview in Cinco Días, Philip Lane, the ECB’s chief economist, made it very clear that this should be a done deal by September. What happens afterwards will be data-dependent. We don’t think a wage-price spiral will develop, as in the most recent wage agreements the increase foreseen for 2023 is only 2.4%, below the 3% the ECB considers consistent with its 2% inflation objective. That said, we can imagine that the ECB will want to get a bit closer to the elusive “neutral interest rate”. Therefore we think the deposit rate will be raised to 0.25% by year-end, moving to 0.50% in 1Q 2023. Thereafter, a long period of 'wait-and-see' might follow. Source: The eurozone’s muddling through at best | Article | ING Think TagsInflation GDP Eurozone ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Technical Outlook Of The EUR/USD Pair After The Fed Meeting

ECB officially ends its long era of unconventional monetary policy

ING Economics ING Economics 09.06.2022 14:21
The European Central Bank has just announced its stopping net asset purchases by the end of the month and pre-announced two rate hikes of 25bp each in July and September. The door for 50bp in September is set wide open ECB President, Christine Lagarde and President of De Nederlandsche Bank, Klaas Knot in Amsterdam   The ECB definitely pre-commits. In its just-announced policy decisions, the European Central Bank has not only made the upcoming 2.30 pm CET press conference less interesting but also laid out a clear path for the normalisation of monetary policy in the eurozone. The only open question is actually why the ECB hasn't already hiked interest rates today but intends to wait for lift-off until the next meeting on 21 July. The ECB's press release also includes the latest staff projections, showing that inflation is now expected to come in at 6.8% in 2022, 3.5% in 2023 and 2.1% in 2024. GDP growth is expected to come in at 2.8% in 2022, 2.1% in 2023 and 2.1% in 2024. Stagflation is the word in the eurozone. What did the ECB decide? Net asset purchases will end as of 1 July Reinvestments of the Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme will continue at least until the end of 2024 and will remain the main instrument against a widening of yield spreads The policy rate remains unchanged, but the ECB announced it ‘intends’ to hike rates by 25bp in July and 25bp in September. The door for a rate hike of 50bp in September is wide open as the statement says, “If the medium-term inflation outlook persists or deteriorates, a larger increment will be appropriate at the September meeting.” Door open for 50bp in September With inflation running red hot but at the same time the eurozone economy slowing down and facing stagnation or even recession, the ECB’s window to normalise monetary policy has been narrowing almost by the day. Today’s decision shows it's managed to find a compromise between the doves and the hawks. A 50bp rate hike in July seemed to be fended off by opening the door for 50bp in September. The era of net asset purchases will come to an end in three weeks, and the era of negative interest rates will come to an end before the autumn. Simply put, the ECB just announced the end of a long era. Whether this will also be the start of a new era of continuously rising interest rates, however, is still far from certain. Read this article on THINK TagsMonetary policy Inflation Eurozone ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
What Does Inflation Rates We Got To Know Mean To Central Banks?

What Does Inflation Rates We Got To Know Mean To Central Banks?

Purple Trading Purple Trading 15.07.2022 13:36
The Swing Overview – Week 28 2022 This week's new record inflation readings sent a clear message to central bankers. Further interest rate hikes must be faster than before. The first of the big banks to take this challenge seriously was the Bank of Canada, which literally shocked the markets with an unprecedented rate hike of a full 1%. This is obviously not good for stocks, which weakened again in the past week. The euro also stumbled and has already fallen below parity with the usd. Uncertainty, on the other hand, favours the US dollar, which has reached new record highs.   Macroeconomic data The data from the US labour market, the so-called NFP, beat expectations, as the US economy created 372 thousand new jobs in June (the expectation was 268 thousand) and the unemployment rate remained at 3.6%. But on the other hand, unemployment claims continued to rise, reaching 244k last week, the 7th week in a row of increase.   But the crucial news was the inflation data for June. It exceeded expectations and reached a new record of 9.1% on year-on-year basis, the highest value since 1981. Inflation rose by 1.3% on month-on-month basis. Energy prices, which rose by 41.6%, had a major impact on inflation. Declines in commodity prices, such as oil, have not yet influenced June inflation, which may be some positive news. Core inflation excluding food and energy prices rose by 5.9%, down from 6% in May.   The value of inflation was a shock to the markets and the dollar strengthened sharply. We can see this in the dollar index, which has already surpassed 109. We will see how the Fed, which will be deciding on interest rates in less than two weeks, will react to this development. A rate hike of 0.75% is very likely and the question is whether even such an increase will be enough for the markets. Meanwhile, there has been an inversion on the yield curve on US bonds. This means that yields on 2-year bonds are higher than those on 10-year bonds. This is one of the signals of a recession. Figure 1: The US Treasury yield curve on the monthly chart and the USD index on the daily chart   The SP 500 Index Apart from macroeconomic indicators, the ongoing earnings season will also influence the performance of the indices this month. Among the major banks, JP Morgan and Morgan Stanley reported results this week. Both banks reported earnings, but they were below investor expectations. The impact of more expensive funding sources that banks need to finance their activities is probably starting to show.   We must also be interested in the data in China, which, due to the size of the Chinese economy, has an impact on the movement of global indices. 2Q GDP in China was 0.4% on year-on-year basis, a significant drop from the previous quarter (4.8%). Strict lockdowns against new COVID-19 outbreaks had an impact on economic situation in the country. Figure 2: SP 500 on H4 and D1 chart The threat of a recession is seeping into the SP 500 index with another decline, which stalled last week at the support level, which according to the H4 is in the 3,740-3,750 range. The next support is 3,640 - 3,670.  The nearest resistance is 3,930 - 3,950. German DAX index The German ZEW sentiment, which shows expectations for the next 6 months, reached - 53.8. This is the lowest reading since 2011. Inflation in Germany reached 7.6% in June. This is lower than the previous month when inflation was 7.9%. Concerns about the global recession continue to affect the DAX index, which has tested significant supports. Figure 3: German DAX index on H4 and daily chart Strong support according to the daily chart is 12,443 - 12,500, which was tested again last week. We can take the moving averages EMA 50 and SMA 100 as a resistance. The nearest horizontal resistance is 12,950 - 13,000.   The euro broke parity with the dollar The euro fell below 1.00 on the pair with the dollar for the first time in 20 years, reaching a low of 0.9950 last week. Although the euro eventually closed above parity, so from a technical perspective it is not a valid break yet, the euro's weakening points to the headwinds the eurozone is facing: high inflation, weak growth, the threat in energy commodity supplies, the war in Ukraine. Figure 4: EUR/USD on H4 and daily chart Next week the ECB will be deciding on interest rates and it is obvious that there will be some rate hike. A modest increase of 0.25% has been announced. Taking into account the issues mentioned above, the motivation for the ECB to raise rates by a more significant step will not be very strong. The euro therefore remains under pressure and it is not impossible that a fall below parity will occur again in the near future.   The nearest resistance according to the H4 chart is at 1.008 - 1.012. A support is the last low, which is at 0.9950 - 0.9960.   Bank of Canada has pulled out the anti-inflation bazooka Analysts had expected the Bank of Canada to raise rates by 0.75%. Instead, the central bank shocked markets with an unprecedented increase by a full 1%, the highest rate hike in 24 years. The central bank did so in response to inflation, which is the highest in Canada in 40 years. With this jump in rates, the bank is trying to prevent uncontrolled price increases.   The reaction of the Canadian dollar has been interesting. It strengthened significantly immediately after the announcement. However, then it began to weaken sharply. This may be because investors now expect the US Fed to resort to a similarly sharp rate hike. Figure 5: USD/CAD on H4 and daily chart Another reason may be the decline in oil prices, which the Canadian dollar is correlated with, as Canada is a major oil producer. The oil is weakening due to fears of a drop in demand that would accompany an economic recession. Figure 6: Oil on the H4 and daily charts Oil is currently in a downtrend. However, it has reached a support value, which is in the area near $94 per barrel. The support has already been broken, but on the daily chart oil closed above this value. Therefore, it is not a valid break yet.  
Euro: Although ECB Is Expected To Rise Interest Rate By 25bps, 50bps Move Wouldn't Be That Shocking

Euro: Although ECB Is Expected To Rise Interest Rate By 25bps, 50bps Move Wouldn't Be That Shocking

FXStreet News FXStreet News 20.07.2022 16:47
The ECB has pre-committed to raising rates by 25 bps in its July meeting. A 50 bps rate increase by the ECB would not come as a surprise. The bank’s rate hike guidance and new anti-fragmentation tool are being eyed. Almost a decade ago, Mario Draghi pledged to do ‘whatever it takes’ to save the euro. Ten years later, the situation is no different and the shared currency is in a dire state yet again. Will European Central Bank (ECB) President Christine Lagarde repeat history by responding to a larger rate hike this Thursday? The central bank meets on July 21 to announce the first interest rate hike in eleven years at 1215 GMT. Lagarde’s press conference will follow at 1245 GMT. ECB could opt for a 50 bps rate hike The ECB is on track to raise rates by 25 bps on Thursday, lifting the key deposit rate to -0.25%. A recent story by Reuters suggested that the ECB policymakers are set to discuss a 50 bps rate hike at the meeting. Therefore, a double-dose rate increase to control record-high inflation will not come as a surprise. Money markets are pricing in 40% odds on a half-point rate hike this week while wagering 97 bps of tightening by September after earlier baking in a one-percentage-point increase. I believe that the ECB will deliver a 50 bps lift-off this month, in the wake of rampant inflation, resumption of the Russian gas supply and the fact that the ECB is way behind the curve. It’s also worth noting that front-loading rates now may allow the central bank some room to pause or go slower on rate hikes when a recession hits. The euro area is battling a record-high inflation rate of 8.6% on an annualized basis, reported in June. Lagarde clearly mentioned in the press conference following the June policy meeting that the rate hike path will remain ‘data-dependent’. Meanwhile, the latest European Commission forecasts showed that inflation is seen at 4% in 2023, lower than the current rate but still double than the central bank’s target. Source: FXStreet But Lagarde did walk back on her words and later said there were "clearly conditions in which gradualism would not be appropriate". Despite the well-telegraphed talks of a 25 bps rate hike, the ECB could follow the US Federal Reserve’s (Fed) footsteps in turning against its pre-committed guidance. With inflation control on top of its agenda, the ECB needs to move forward with bigger rate hikes, as it remains the main laggard in the global tightening bandwagon. Even the Swiss National Bank (SNB) surprised markets with a 50 bps rate rise in its last policy meeting. Meanwhile, the Fed is likely to hike rates by 75 bps next week, totaling 250 bps of increases so far. The premise for a quarter-point rate rise could be also ebbing fears over an imminent recession in the bloc, especially after Russia announced on Tuesday that Russia's Nord Stream 1 pipeline will resume gas flows on schedule this week but at reduced levels. The Nord Stream 1 carries more than one-third of Russia's natural gas exports to Europe and it was critical for the pipeline to restart after it went offline for 10 days on July 11 for annual maintenance. However, a big move this week could trigger a renewed explosion in the peripheral bond yields, already when the Italian bond yields are through the roof amid simmering political turmoil in the region. But the risk could be mitigated by the policymakers if they announce a new bond-buying scheme on Thursday. The new transmission protection mechanism will cap member countries' borrowing costs when they are deemed to be out of sync with economic reality. Sources with knowledge of the matter said, “ECB policymakers home in on a deal to make new bond purchases conditional on next generation EU targets and fiscal rules.” "These include the targets set by the Commission for securing money from the European Union Recovery and Resilience Facility as well as the Stability and Growth Pact, when it is reinstated next year after the pandemic break,” the sources added. Trading EURUSD price with the ECB EURUSD price is witnessing a classic short-squeeze in the lead-up to the ECB showdown after the euro succumbed below parity against the US dollar last week. The pair has recovered roughly 300 pips from a two-decade low of 0.9952 but the further upside remains at the mercy of Lagarde & Co. EURUSD could resume its downtrend towards parity on ‘sell the fact’ trading should the central bank deliver the expected 25 bps rate hike. A double-dose lift-off could restore the ECB’s credibility in fighting inflation, offering a temporary boost to the euro. The main currency pair could extend the short-squeeze towards the critical 1.0360-1.0370 supply zone, eyeing 1.0400 the figure. The upside risks to EURUSD price could be limited if Lagarde fails to commit on big moves in the September meeting. Also, the lack of details on the new anti-fragmentation tool could leave EUR bulls in limbo once again.
US Dollar To Japanese Yen (USD/JPY): Bank Of Japan Did IT!

Japanese Yen (JPY) Rise. Energy Prices Are Finally Falling!?

John Hardy John Hardy 16.08.2022 10:05
Summary:  Weak data out of China overnight, together with a surprise rate cut from the PBOC and collapsing energy prices later on Monday saw the Japanese yen surging higher across the board. Indeed, the two key factors behind its descent to multi-decade lows earlier this year, rising yields and surging energy prices, have eased considerably since mid-June with only modest reaction from the yen thus far. Is that about to change? FX Trading focus: JPY finding sudden support on new disinflation narrative Weaker than expected Chinese data overnight brought a surprise rate cut from the Chinese central bank and seems to have sparked a broadening sell-off in commodities, which was boosted later by a crude oil drop of some five dollars per barrel on the news that Iran will decide by midnight tonight on whether to accept a new draft on the nuclear deal forward by the Euro zone. In response, the Chinese yuan has weakened toward the highs for the cycle in USDCNH, trading 6.78+ as of this writing and  (there was a spike high to 6.381 back in May but the exchange rate has been capped by 6.80 since then), but the Japanese yen is stealing the volatility and strength crown, surging sharply across the board and following up on the move lower inspired by the soft US CPI data point. US long yields easing considerably lower after an odd spike last Thursday are a further wind at the JPY’s back here. In the bigger picture, it has been rather remarkable that the firm retreat in global long-date yields since the mid-June peak and the oil price backing down a full 25% and more from the cycle highs didn’t do more to support the yen from the yield-spread angle (Bank of Japan’s YCC policy less toxic as yields fall) and from the current account angle for Japan. Interestingly, while the JPY has surged and taken USDJPY down several notches, the US dollar is rather firm elsewhere, with the focus more on selling pro-cyclical and commodity currencies on the possible implication that China may be content to export deflation by weakening its currency now that commodity prices have come down rather than on selling the US dollar due to any marking down of Fed expectations. Still, while the USD may remain a safe haven should JPY volatility be set to run amok across markets, the focus is far more on the latter as long as USDJPY is falling Chart: EURJPY As the JPY surges here, EURJPY is falling sharply again, largely tracking the trajectory of longer European sovereign yields, which never really rose much from their recent lows from a couple of weeks back, making it tough to understand the solid rally back above 138.00 of late. After peaking above 1.90% briefly in June, the German 10-year Bund, for example, is trading about 100 basis points lower and is not far from the cycle low daily close at 77 basis points. The EURJPY chart features a rather significant pivot area at 133.50, a prior major high back in late 2021 and the recent low and 200-day moving average back at the beginning of the month. After a brief JPY volatility scare in late July and into early August that faded, are we set for a second and bigger round here that takes USDJPY down through 130.00 and EURJPY likewise? A more significant rally in long US treasuries might be required to bring about a real JPY rampage. Source: Saxo Group The focus on weak Chinese data and key commodity prices like copper suddenly losing altitude after their recent rally has the Aussie shifting to the defensive just after it was showing strength late last week in sympathy with strong risk sentiment and those higher commodity prices. Is the AUDUSD break above 0.7000-25 set for a high octane reversal here? AUDJPY is worth a look as well after it managed to surge all the way back toward the top of the range before. The idea that a weak Chine might export deflation from here might be unsettling for Aussie bulls. The US macro data focus for the week is on today’s NAHB homebuilder’s survey, which plunged to a low since 2015 in June (not including the chaotic early 2020 pandemic breakout months), the July Housing Starts and Building Permits and then the July Retail Sales and FOMC minutes on Wednesday. With a massive relief in gasoline prices from the July spike high, it will be interesting to see whether the August US data picks up again on the services side. The preliminary August University of Michigan sentiment survey release on Friday showed expectations rising sharply by over 7 points from the lowest since-1980 lows of June, while the Present Situation measure dropped a few points back toward the cycle (and record) lows from May. Table: FX Board of G10 and CNH trend evolution and strength. The JPY is the real story today, but as our trending measures employ some averaging/smoothing, the move will need to stick what it has achieved today to show more. Watch out for a big shift in the commodity currencies in coming days as well if today’s move is the start of something. Elsewhere, the JPY comeback is merely taking CHF from strength to strength, although even the might franc has dropped against the JPY today. Source: Bloomberg and Saxo Group Table: FX Board Trend Scoreboard for individual pairs. Big momentum shift afoot today and watching whether this holds and the JPY pairs and pairs like AUDUSD and USDCAD to see if we are witnessing a major momentum shift in themes here. Also note NOK pairs like USDNOK and EURNOK here. Source: Bloomberg and Saxo Group Upcoming Economic Calendar Highlights (all times GMT) 1400 – US Aug. NAHB Housing Market Index 0130 – Australia RBA Meeting Minutes Source: FX Update: JPY jumps on deflating energy prices, fresh retreat in yields.
Netherlands: Wow! Dutch GDP Exceeded Expectations Growing By 2.6%!

Netherlands: Wow! Dutch GDP Exceeded Expectations Growing By 2.6%!

ING Economics ING Economics 18.08.2022 10:07
Dutch GDP rose significantly in the second quarter of this year, up by 2.6% from the previous quarter; it's much stronger than expected. The service sector rebounded particularly well but there was growth in all the main expenditure items. However, the outlook for the second half of the year is negative 'Staff wanted' says this sign at a restaurant in Maastricht, but the economic outlook for the Netherlands is negative 2.6% Dutch GDP growth rate 2Q22 (QoQ) Better than expected Growth supported by expansion of all main expenditure items These are good growth figures for the Netherlands; all expenditures, except inventories, rose. Investment provided the largest contribution to growth; gross capital formation expanded by 5.2% compared with the first quarter. Expenditure volumes rose thanks to a massive increase in transport equipment (37.2%), which had a lot of rebound potential due to earlier supply chain issues. Investment in non-residential buildings (3.7%), ICT equipment (3.2%), machinery & other equipment (2.6%), intangible assets (2.1%) and housing (1.5%) increased. Investment in infrastructure fell (-1.3%) and stock-building also contributed negatively (-0.2% GDP contribution). Household consumption rose 0.9%, particularly because of high spending at the beginning of the quarter. While consumption of services and durable were still expanding, food consumption volumes fell due to higher prices and increased visits to restaurants and bars. It was the first quarter without significant lockdown measures, which mostly ended in  January 2022. Government consumption expanded by 0.1%. Despite still elevated worldwide supply chain disruptions, Dutch exports grew by a decent 2.7%. Goods exports expanded by 2.7%, with both domestically produced goods exports and re-exports showing a positive development. Service exports, such as those driven by incoming foreign tourism, expanded by 2.8%, but remember that this is a rebound from the previous low levels we saw due to the pandemic.  The overall net contribution of international trade to GDP growth was positive (1.2%-point) in the second quarter, because of a long-standing trade surplus and the fact that imports (1.6%) showed weaker growth than exports. The import of services fell by -2.5%. Strong sectorial performance From a sectoral perspective, the value-added growth figure was strongest in the small energy supply sector (8.8% quarter-on-quarter growth). ICT (6.2%), specialised business services (4.5%), semi-public services (3.6%), trade, transport & hospitality (3.6%), water utilities (2.0%), manufacturing (1,2%) also expanded, while output was rather stable in financial services (-0.1%) and agriculture (-0.2%) and value-added contracted in mining & quarrying (i.e. oil & gas, -3.5%). While detailed seasonally adjusted data for subsectors is not available, it seems reasonable to assume that bars & restaurants, travel and recreation, and culture had even more substantial growth than the energy supply sector, given the rebound potential these sectors still had. Outlook less positive The fact that the second-quarter GDP figures were very strong does not mean that the outlook is bright. We maintain that growth will be negative in the coming quarters. Consumers will increasingly be affected by higher prices for energy and food, resulting in cuts to the consumption of other items. Last month we observed the first signs of weakening demand in the value of transactions by ING consumers and the latest figures only seem to confirm that. On top of that, gas prices have risen even further in the past few weeks. Consumer confidence figures have been at record lows for some time, while business sentiment indicators only started to drop recently. While composite indicators are still holding up reasonably well, the balance of business expectations of the economic climate in the next three months has reached its lowest level since the third quarter of 2013, bar the Covid period, according to a survey for the third quarter (mostly executed in July). On a positive note, investment expectations for the current year only fell a little and remained net positive in the third quarter. So we are currently forecasting a mild technical recession for the Dutch economy as our base case. A still very tight labour market, high amounts of Covid-related savings and expansionary fiscal policy in the medium term may somewhat limit the dip in the real economy caused by higher prices. That said, further cuts in energy supplies from Russia are a downward risk scenario that could push energy prices higher still further and put even more pressure on spending and GDP. We’re seeing the first signs of weaker demand Read this article on THINK TagsInflation GDP Consumption Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Hold On Tight! Look How Much Has (EUR) Euro Weakened Against USD (US Dollar) Since The Beginning Of 2021!

Hold On Tight! Look How Much Has (EUR) Euro Weakened Against USD (US Dollar) Since The Beginning Of 2021!

ING Economics ING Economics 18.08.2022 10:27
The euro's depreciation has helped to improve the competitiveness of eurozone businesses but in contrast to previous episodes of euro weakness, exports are hardly benefiting. Remarkably, structurally weaker eurozone economies have gained relative competitiveness since the start of the pandemic Does parity bring relief for eurozone exporters? Euro-dollar reached parity for the first time since 2002 - a milestone that is largely symbolic. However, the weakening of the euro, in general, deserves attention. The euro has been falling against the dollar since mid-2021, which seems to be largely related to diverging central bank expectations and a sudden decline in the eurozone's trade balance. The latter is mainly related to the energy crisis, which has turned a solid trade surplus into a large trade deficit. The high energy prices paid in international markets have played an important role in the weakening of the currency. Because the energy element is so important in the slide of the euro, the euro has weakened most significantly against the dollar. Against other important trade partners, the eurozone has seen its currency weaken less. While the euro has lost 16.2% vis-à-vis the US dollar since 1 January 2021, the trade-weighted exchange rate has only depreciated by 6.9%. The euro's slide has resulted in a lot of imported inflation because we pay for global commodities in dollars. At the same time, gains in competitiveness have been modest. This is far from the best of both worlds. The euro weakening is closely linked to higher energy prices Source: Macrobond, ING Research Competitiveness is improving, but businesses aren't noticing it The competitiveness improvement does require a deeper look, though, as relative inflation between trade partners plays a role. Taking this into account, the real effective exchange rate (REER) for a country is considered to be a key indicator measuring competitiveness. This is an exchange rate which is weighted by local cost developments. In this case, we use unit labour costs. As chart 3 shows, the REER for the eurozone has been sliding, which boosts the competitive position of eurozone companies. This means that despite a limited drop in the nominal effective exchange rate, businesses do seem to be profiting from relatively better price competitiveness. So while the main impact of the weakening euro is definitely negative through higher imported inflation, there is at least some improvement in export competitiveness to be seen, which could cushion the recessionary effects in the domestic market. Competitiveness is improving, but businesses aren't noticing it Source: European Commission, Eurostat, ING Research   The problem is that businesses are far from feeling this though. The Economic Sentiment Indicator has a subindex which reveals how businesses perceive their competitiveness to have changed in their home markets and abroad. This indicates that competitiveness has dropped significantly within the EU and outside. While exports have recovered to the pre-pandemic trend in recent quarters, it looks like the weaker euro has not given an extra push. The question is whether this relates to price competitiveness or whether weakening global demand is causing this. Regardless, it does not look like businesses are profiting from the improved REER at this point, highlighting the fact that the eurozone is currently mainly feeling the burden from the weak euro and is reaping little benefit from it. How has relative competitiveness within the eurozone evolved since the pandemic started? Reflecting on the euro crisis, we noticed a severe deterioration in competitiveness among the ‘periphery’ countries ahead of the crisis. The big question was if the weaker economies could make structural adjustments to become more attractive exporters again and with that, run surpluses. Painful wage adjustments were modestly successful in regaining competitiveness at that point. While competitiveness is not the primary economic problem right now, it is interesting to see if any divergence in competitiveness is emerging again. When looking at the developments in the real effective exchange rate based on unit labour costs against other eurozone economies in recent years, we see interesting differences in performance. Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium have seen their competitiveness deteriorate, while Italy, France and Greece have seen strong improvements. Spanish competitiveness has been stable over recent years, while Portugal has experienced a sizable deterioration. The export powerhouses of the past decade have seen their competitive position slip a little compared to other eurozone countries. This is mainly due to stronger wage growth while productivity growth did not improve in tandem. Overall, this development is a small step towards making the monetary union more coherent and reducing the risk of a new euro crisis triggered by differences in competitiveness. Internal eurozone competitiveness gains are made by France and Italy Source: European Commission, ING Research   A shift in relative competitiveness had already started prior to the pandemic. However, some of the large moves at the start of the pandemic were likely related to how furlough schemes are included in the statistics and so are not necessarily an accurate reflection of underlying competitiveness developments. This seems to be the case for the Netherlands and Greece for example, but in the Dutch case, we still notice a break from the pre-pandemic trend as cost competitiveness ended up at a weaker level in the second quarter. Since energy prices have become a dominant factor and labour cost competitiveness is muddied by government support, a look at a different measure of cost competitiveness is useful. Taking the GDP deflator, a broad price index across the economy, we see that a roughly similar picture emerges. Also here, the Netherlands and Germany have seen cost competitiveness deteriorate compared to other eurozone economies, while Italy and France have seen improvements. Compared to a broader basket of trade partners, the weaker euro dominates but still, we see that Germany and the Netherlands have experienced smaller gains compared to France and Italy. Competitiveness gains have been modest and smallest in the north The euro's depreciation has helped to improve the traditional cost competitiveness of eurozone businesses but in contrast to previous episodes of euro weakness, exports are hardly benefiting. As energy prices are probably a much larger cost concern for eurozone businesses, traditional cost competitiveness indicators have to be taken with a pinch of salt. Still, looking at competitiveness shifts within the eurozone, remarkably, structurally weaker eurozone economies have become relatively more competitive since the start of the pandemic, reducing the risk of a new euro crisis being triggered by stark differences in competitiveness. Read this article on THINK TagsGDP Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Termination EUR / USD pair. EUR in a downward direction

The Peak Of Inflation May Be Yet To Come? ECB Takes Steps

Conotoxia Comments Conotoxia Comments 19.08.2022 12:38
Inflation in the Eurozone appears to be rising steadily, which may be influenced by the rising cost of electricity and energy carriers. Today's release of producer prices in Germany suggests that the peak of inflation in the Eurozone may be yet to come. Germany is the eurozone's largest economy, so published readings for that economy could heavily influence data for the community as a whole. Energy for businesses rose by 105 percent. Today we learned that in July producer prices (PPI inflation) rose in Germany at the fastest pace on record. PPI inflation on an annualized basis was as high as 37.2 percent. A month earlier, price growth stood at 32.7 percent, while the market consensus was for inflation of 32 percent. Energy prices still seem to remain the main driver of producer costs. The cost of the aforementioned energy for businesses rose 105 percent compared to July 2021. Had it not been for this factor, producer prices could have risen much more slowly, by only 14.6 percent. - according to the published data. Entrepreneurs could translate such a significant increase in costs into their products, which could also raise consumer CPI inflation as a result. Hence, it is not impossible that a possible peak in inflation in the eurozone is yet to come. It could fall in the last quarter of this year, or early next year, assuming that energy prices begin to stabilize or fall. Otherwise, the eurozone economy could plunge into a deep crisis. EUR/USD near parity again The rate of the EUR/USD pair fell today to 1.0084 (yesterday it was around 1.0200) and again approached parity at 1.0000. Concerns about the eurozone economy may be reflected in the exchange rate. However, it seems that the reaction to negative data is becoming less and less, as if the market has to some extent already discounted some of the bad news that may come in the near future. The European Central Bank's forthcoming actions may put the brakes on the euro's sell-off. According to the interest rate market, the ECB may opt for two rate hikes of 50 basis points each this fall. The market assumes that the ECB will raise the main interest rate to 1.5 percent throughout the cycle. Unlike the Fed, which may reduce the pace of hikes at the end of the year, the ECB may only move with a rapid increase in interest rates. Daniel Kostecki, Director of the Polish branch of Conotoxia Ltd. (Conotoxia investment service) Materials, analysis and opinions contained, referenced or provided herein are intended solely for informational and educational purposes. Personal opinion of the author does not represent and should not be constructed as a statement or an investment advice made by Conotoxia Ltd. All indiscriminate reliance on illustrative or informational materials may lead to losses. Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future results. CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 82.59% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. Source: PPI inflation in Germany highest on record. Euro under pressure
The Bank Of England (BoE) Chasing The Inflation. Forex: GBPUSD, CNHJPY, EURUSD And Others

The Bank Of England (BoE) Chasing The Inflation. Forex: GBPUSD, CNHJPY, EURUSD And Others

John Hardy John Hardy 19.08.2022 13:41
Summary:  The USD is breaking higher still, with important levels falling versus the Euro and yen yesterday. But the pain in sterling is most intense as presaged by the lack of a response to surging UK rates. Can the Bank of England do anything but continue to chase inflation from behind, caught between the Scylla of inflation and the Charybdis of a vicious recession? Also, USDCNH lurks at the top of the range ahead of another PBOC rate announcement on Monday. FX Trading focus: USD wrecking ball swinging again. UK faced with classic ugly choice between taking the pain via inflation or a severe recession The US dollar strength has picked up further after yesterday saw the breakdown in EURUSD below 1.0100 and a shot through 135.50 in USDJPY as longer US yields pushed to local highs. GBPUSD has been a bigger move on sterling weakness as discussed below.  A bit of resilient US data (especially the lower jobless claims than expected and a sharp revision lower of the prior week’s data taking the momentum out of the rising trend) has helped support the USD higher as longer US yields rose a bit further, taking the 10-year US treasury yield benchmark to new local highs, although we really need to see 3.00% achieved there after a few recent teases higher with no follow through higher. Looking forward to next week, the market will have to mull whether it has been too aggressive in pricing the Fed to pivot policy next year on disinflation and an easy-landing for the economy. The steady drumbeat of Fed pushback against the market’s complacency, together with a few of the recent data points (ISM Services, nonfarm payrolls, yesterday’s claims, etc.) has seen some of the conviction easing. But the key test will come next Friday, when Fed Chair Powell is set to speak on the same day we get the July PCE inflation data. Keep USDCNH on the radar through the end of today on the risk of an upside break above the range and Monday as the PBOC is set for a rate announcement (consensus expectations or another 10 bps of easing).   Chart: GBPUSD Lots at stake for sterling as discussed below, as it is a bit scary to see a currency weaken sharply despite a massive ratcheting higher in rate expectations from the central bank. The fall of 1.2000 has set in motion a focus on the 1.1760 cycle low, with an aggravated USD rise here and tightening of global financial conditions possibly quickly bringing the spike low toward 1.1500 from the early 2020 pandemic outbreak panic into focus. It is worth noting that the lowest monthly closing level for GBPUSD since the mid-1980’s is 1.2156. Without something dramatic to push back against USD strength next week from Jackson Hole, it is hard to see how this month may set the new low water mark for monthly closes. Source: Saxo Group GBPUSD slipped below 1.1900 this morning after breaking below the psychologically important 1.2000 level yesterday. As noted in the prior update, it’s remarkable to see the marked weakness in sterling despite the marking taking UK short rates sharply higher – with 2-year UK swaps over 100 basis points higher from the lows early this month. The Bank of England has expressed a determination to get ahead of the inflation spike and the market has priced in a bit more than a 50-basis-points-per-meeting pace for the three remaining BoE meetings of 2022. But is that sufficient given the UK’s structural short-comings and external deficits? Currency weakness risks adding further to spike in inflation this year. The BoE can take a couple of approaches in response: continue with the 50 bps hikes while bemoaning the backdrop and trotting out the expectation that eventually, economic weakness and easing commodity prices will feed through to drop inflation back into the range. Or, the BoE can actually get serious and super-size hikes even beyond the acceleration the market has priced, at the risk of bringing forward and increasing the severity of the coming recession. Until this week, the BoE’s anticipated tightening trajectory had prevented an aggravated weakness in sterling in broader terms, but the currency’s weakness despite a massive mark-up of BoE expectations has ratcheted the pressure on sterling and the BoE’s response to an entirely new level. Turkey shocked with a fresh rate cut yesterday of 100 basis points to take the policy rate to 13.00%. This with year-on-year inflation in Turkey at 79.6% and PPI at 144.6%, and housing measured at 160.6%. The move took USDTRY above 18.00, though it was a modest move relative to the size of the surprise. Turkish central bank chief Kavcioglu said that the bank would also look to “further strengthen macroprudential policy” by addressing the yawning difference between the policy rate and the rate commercial banks are charging for loans (more than double the official policy rate), as the push is to continue a credit-stimulated approach, inflation-be-darned.   Table: FX Board of G10 and CNH trend evolution and strength Note: a new color scheme for the FX Board! Besides changing the green for positive readings to a more pleasant blue, I have altered the settings such that trend readings don’t receive a more intense red or blue coloring until they have reached more significant levels – starting at an absolute value of 4 or higher. So far, most of the drama in sterling is the lack of a response to shifts in the UK yield curve, the broad negative momentum has only shifted a bit here, but watching for the risk of more. Source: Bloomberg and Saxo Group Table: FX Board Trend Scoreboard for individual pairs AUDNZD is crossing back higher, AUDCAD back lower, so NZDCAD….yep. Note the CNHJPY – if CNH is to make more waves, need to see more CNH weakness in an isolated sense, not just v. a strong USD. And speaking of a strong USD, the last holdouts in reversing, USDNOK and USDCHF, are on the cusp of a reversal. Source: Bloomberg and Saxo Group Upcoming Economic Calendar Highlights (all times GMT) 1230 – Canada Jun. Retail Sales 1300 – US Fed’s Barkin (Non-voter) to speak   Source: FX Update: USD surging again, GBP spinning into abyss
The Euro In The Last Few Months Clearly Reflect What Is Happening In The Euro/Dollar Pair

Everyone Is Dissapointed In Euro (EUR). Japanese Officials Have To Face Discontests From Yields Rise

Marc Chandler Marc Chandler 21.08.2022 23:14
For many, this will be the last week of the summer. However, in an unusual twist of the calendar, the US August employment report will be released on September 2, the end of the following week, rather than after the US Labor Day holiday (September 5).   The main economic report of the week ahead will be the preliminary estimate of the August PMI  The policy implications are not as obvious as they may seem. For example, in July, the eurozone composite PMI slipped below the 50 boom/bust level for the first time since February 2021. It was the third consecutive decline. Bloomberg's monthly survey of economists picked up a cut in Q3 GDP forecasts to 0.1% from 0.2% and a contraction of 0.2% in Q4 (previously 0.2% growth). Over the past week, the swaps market has moved from around 80% sure of a 50 bp hike next month to a nearly 20% chance it will lift the deposit rate by 75 bp.  The UK's composite PMI fell in three of the four months through July  However, at 52.1, it remains above the boom/bust level, though it is the weakest since February 2021. The Bank of England's latest forecasts are more pessimistic than the market. It projects the economy will contract by 1.5% next year and another 0.3% in 2024. It has CPI peaking later this year at around 13% before falling to 5.5% in 2023 and 1.5% in 2024. Market expectations have turned more hawkish for the BOE too. A week ago, the swap market was pricing in a nearly 90% chance of another 50 bp hike. After the CPI jump reported in the middle of last week, the market fully priced in the 50 bp move and a nearly 30% chance of a 75 bp hike.   Japanese officials have successfully turned back market pressure that had driven the benchmark three-month implied volatility to 14% in mid-June, more than twice as high as it was at the start of the year  It slipped below 10% in recent days. The BOJ was forced to vigorously defend its 0.25% cap on the 10-year bond. It has spent the better part of the past three weeks below 0.20%. The BOJ has not had to spend a single yen on its defense since the end of June. However, with the jump in global yields (US 10-year yield rose 20 bp last week, the German Bund 33 bp, and the 10-year UK Gilt nearly 40 bp) and the weakness of the yen, the BOJ is likely to be challenged again.   The economy remains challenging  The composite PMI fell to 50.2 in July from 53.2 in June. It is the weakest reading since February. It has averaged 50.4 through July this year. The average for the first seven months last year was 49.0. The government is working on some support measures aimed at extending the efforts to cushion the blow of higher energy and food prices. Japan's Q2 GDP deflator was minus 0.4%, which was half of the median forecast in Bloomberg's survey, but it shows the tough bind of policy. Consider that the July CPI rose to 2.6%, and the core measure, which the BOJ targets, excludes fresh food, rose to 2.4% from 2.2%. The target is 2%, and it was the third month above it. Tokyo will report its August CPI figures at the end of the week.   Australia's flash PMI may be more influential as the futures market is nearly evenly split between a 25 bp hike and a 50 bp move at the September 6 central bank meeting  The minutes from the RBA's meeting earlier this month underscored its data dependency. However, this is about the pace of the move. The target rate is currently at 1.85%, and the futures market is near 3.15% for the end of the year, well beyond the 2.5% that the central bank sees as neutral. The weakness of China's economy may dent the positive terms-of-trade shock. The Melbourne Institute measure of consumer inflation expectations fell in August for the second month but at 5.9%, is still too high.  Through the statistical quirkiness of GDP-math, the US economy contracted in the first two quarters of the year  A larger trade deficit did not help, but the real problem was inventories. In fairness, more of the nominal growth resulted from higher prices than economists expected rather than underlying activity. Still, it does appear that the US economy is expanding this quarter, and the high-frequency data will help investors and economists assess the magnitude. While surveys are helpful, the upcoming real sector data include durable goods orders (and shipments, which feed into GDP models), July personal income and consumption figures, the July goods trade balance, and wholesale and retail inventories.   Consumption still drives more than 2/3 of the economy, and like retail sales, personal consumption expenditures are reported in nominal terms, which means that they are inflated by rising prices  However, the PCE deflator is expected to slow dramatically. After jumping 1% in June, the headline deflator is expected to increase by 0.1%. This will allow the year-over-year rate to slow slightly (~6.5% from 6.8%). The core deflator is forecast (median, Bloomberg's survey) to rise by 0.4%, which given the base effect, could see the smallest of declines in the year-over-year rate that stood at 4.8% in June. Given the Fed's revealed preferences when it cited the CPI rise in the decision in June to hike by 75 bp instead of 50 bp, the CPI has stolen the PCE deflator's thunder, even though the Fed targets the PCE deflator. Real consumption was flat in Q2, and Q3 is likely to have begun on firmer footing.   The softer than expected CPI, PPI, and import/export prices spurred the market into downgrading the chances of a 75 bp hike by the Fed next month  After the stronger than expected jobs growth, the Fed funds futures priced in a little better than a 75% chance of a 75 bp hike. It has been mostly hovering in the 40%-45% range most of last week but finished near 55%. It is becoming a habit for the market to read the Fed dovishly even though it is engaged in a more aggressive course than the markets anticipated. This market bias warns of the risk of a market reversal after Powell speaks on August 26.   At the end of last year, the Fed funds futures anticipated a target rate of about 0.80% at the end of this year. Now it says 3.50%. The pace of quantitative tightening is more than expected and will double starting next month. There is also the tightening provided by the dollar's appreciation. For example, at the end of 2021, the median forecast in Bloomberg's survey saw the euro finishing this year at $1.15. Now the median sees the euro at $1.04 at the end of December. And even this may prove too high.    The FOMC minutes from last month's meeting recognized two risks. The first was that the Fed would tighten too much. Monetary policy impacts with a lag, which also acknowledges that soft-landing is difficult to achieve. The market initially focused on this risk as is its wont. However, the Fed also recognized the risk of inflation becoming entrenched and characterized this risk as "significant." The Jackson Hole confab (August 25-27) will allow the Fed to help steer investors and businesses between Scylla and Charybdis.  Critics jumped all over Fed Chair Powell's claim that the Fed funds target is now in the area the officials regard as neutral. This was not a forecast by the Chair, but merely a description of the long-term target rate understood as neither stimulating nor restricting the economy. In June, all but three Fed officials saw the long-term rate between 2.25% and 2.50%. To put that in perspective, recall that in December 2019, the median view of the long-term target was 2.50%. Eleven of the 18 Fed officials put their "dot" between 2.25% and 2.50%. The FOMC minutes were clear that a restrictive stance is necessary, and the Fed clearly signaled additional rate hikes are required. The discussions at Jackson Hole may clarify what the neutral rate means.  Barring a significant downside surprise, we expect the Fed will deliver its third consecutive 75 bp increase next month. The strength and breadth of the jobs growth while price pressures remain too high and financial conditions have eased encourages the Fed to move as fast as the market allows. However, before it meets, several important high-frequency data points will be revealed, including a few employment measures, the August nonfarm payroll report, and CPI.   The market is also having second thoughts about a rate cut next year  At the end of July, the implied yield of the December 2023 Fed funds futures was 50 bp below the implied yield of the December 2022 contract. It settled last week at near an 8 bp discount. This reflects a growing belief that the Fed will hike rates in Q1 23. The March 2023 contract's implied yield has risen from less than five basis points more than the December 2022 contract to more than  20 bp above it at the end of last week.   Let's turn to the individual currency pairs, put last week's price action into the larger context, and assess the dollar's technical condition  We correctly anticipated the end of the dollar's pullback that began in mid-July, but the power for the bounce surprises. Key technical levels have been surpassed, warning that the greenback will likely retest the July highs.   Dollar Index: DXY surged by more than 2.3% last week, its biggest weekly advance since March 2020. The momentum indicators are constructive and not over-extended. However, it closed well above the upper Bollinger Band (two standard deviations above the 20-day moving average), found near 107.70. Little stands in the way of a test on the mid-July high set around 109.30. Above there, the 110-111.30 area beckons. While the 107.50 area may offer some support now, a stronger floor may be found closer to 107.00.   Euro:  The euro was turned back from the $1.0365-70 area on August 10-11 and put in a low near $1.0030 ahead of the weekend. The five-day moving average slipped below the 20-day moving average for the first time in around 3.5 weeks. The MACD is trending lower, while the Slow Stochastic did not confirm the recent high, leaving a bearish divergence in its wake. The only caution comes from the euro's push through the lower Bollinger Band (~$1.0070). Initially, parity may hold, but the risk is a retest on the mid-July $0.9950 low. A convincing break could target the $0.96-$0.97 area. As the euro has retreated, the US two-year premium over Germany has trended lower. It has fallen more than 30 bp since peaking on August 5. We find that the rate differential often peaks before the dollar.   Japanese Yen: The dollar will begin the new week with a four-day advance against the yen in tow. It has surpassed the (61.8%) retracement objective of the pullback since the mid-July high (~JPY139.40) found near JPY136.00. The momentum indicators are constructive, and the five-day moving average has crossed above the 20-day for the first time since late July. It tested the lower band of the next resistance bans seen in the JPY137.25-50 area at the end of last week. But it appears poised to re-challenge the highs. As volatility increases and yields rise, Japanese officials return to their first line of defense: verbal intervention.  British Pound: Sterling took out the neckline of a possible double top we have been monitoring that came in at $1.20. It projects toward the two-year lows set in mid-July near $1.1760, dipping below $1.18 ahead of the weekend. As one would expect, the momentum indicators are headed lower, and the five-day moving average has fallen below the 20-day moving average for the first time in four weeks. It has closed below its lower Bollinger Band (~$1.1910) in the last two sessions. A convincing break of the $1.1760 low clears the way to the March 2020 low, about 3.5-cents lower. Initial resistance is now seen around $1.1860 and, if paid, could signal scope for another 3/4 to a full-cent squeeze.  Canadian Dollar:  The Canadian dollar was no match for the greenback, which moved above CAD1.30 ahead of the weekend for the first time in a month. The momentum indicators suggest the US dollar has more scope to advance, and the next target is the CAD1.3035 area. Above there, the CAD1.3100-35 band is next. The high since November 2020 was recorded in the middle of July around CAD1.3225. After whipsawing in Q1, the five- and 20-day moving averages have caught the big moves. The shorter average crossed above the longer moving average last week for the first time since July 21. Initial support will likely be encountered near CAD1.2935.   Australian Dollar:  The Aussie was sold every day last week. It is the first time in a year, and its 3.4% drop is the largest since September 2020.   The rally from the mid-July low (~$0.6680) to the recent high (~$0.7135) looks corrective in nature. Before the weekend, it tested the rally's (61.8%) retracement objective. The momentum indicators are falling, and the Slow Stochastic did not confirm this month's high, creating a bearish divergence. A break of the $0.6850-60 area may signal follow-through selling into the $0.6790-$0.6800 band, but a retest on the July low is looking increasingly likely. Initial resistance is now seen near $0.6920.   Mexican Peso:  The peso's four-day slide ended a six-day run. The peso lost about 1.6% last week, slightly better than the 2.25% slide of the JP Morgan Emerging Market Currency Index. This month, the US dollar peaked around MXN20.8335 and proceeded to fall and forged a base near MXN19.81. It has met the (38.2%) retracement objective around MXN20.20 before the weekend. The next (50%) retracement is near MXN20.3230. The 200-day moving average is closer to MXN20.41. The dollar is probing the 20-day moving average seen a little below MXN20.24. The momentum indicators have only just turned up for the greenback. We suspect there may be potential to around MXN20.50 in the coming days.   Chinese Yuan:  The yuan was tagged with more than a 1% loss against the dollar last week, its biggest decline in three months. A combination of poor Chinese data, its small rate cut, and a resurgent US dollar spurred the exchange rate adjustment. At the end of July, China's 10-year yield was about 11 bp on top of the US. However, it switched to a discount after the US jobs data (August 5), and the discount grew every day last week, reaching 35 bp, the most since late June. After gapping higher before the weekend, the greenback reached nearly CNY6.8190, its highest level since September 2020. The next target is around CNY6.85, but given the divergence of policy, a move back toward CNY7.00, last seen in July 2020, maybe a reasonable medium-term target. The PBOC's dollar fix ahead of the weekend showed no protest of the weaker exchange rate.     Disclaimer   Source: Flash PMI, Jackson Hole, and the Price Action
Japan's Prime Minister Tested Covid Positive. Gazprom Confirmed Gas Shipment Would Be Stopped!

Japan's Prime Minister Tested Covid Positive. Gazprom Confirmed Gas Shipment Would Be Stopped!

Marc Chandler Marc Chandler 22.08.2022 16:28
Overview: The euro traded below parity for the second time this year and sterling extended last week’s 2.5% slide. While the dollar is higher against nearly all the emerging market currencies, it is more mixed against the majors. The European currencies have suffered the most, except the Norwegian krone. The dollar-bloc and yen are also slightly firmer. The week has begun off with a risk-off bias. Nearly all the large Asia Pacific equity markets were sold. Chinese indices were a notable exception following a cut in the loan prime rates. Europe’s Stoxx 600 is off by around 1.20%, the most in a month. US futures are more than 1% lower. The Asia Pacific yield rose partly in catch-up to the pre-weekend advance in US yields, while today, US and European benchmark 10-year yields are slightly lower. The UK Gilt stands out with a small gain. Gold is being sold for the sixth consecutive session and has approached the (61.8%) retracement of the rally from last month’s low (~$1680) that is found near $1730. October WTI is soft below $90, but still inside the previous session’s range. US natgas is up 2.4% to build on the 1.6% gain seen before the weekend. It could set a new closing high for the year. Gazprom’s announcement of another shutdown of its Nord Stream 1 for maintenance sent the European benchmark up over 15% today. It rose almost 20.3% last week. Iron ore rose for the first time in six sessions, while September copper is giving back most of the gains scored over the past two sessions. September wheat rallied almost 3% before the weekend and is off almost 1% now.  Asia Pacific Following the 10 bp reduction in benchmark one-year Medium-Term Lending Facility Rate at the start of last week, most observers expected Chinese banks to follow-up with a cut in the loan prime rates today  They delivered but in a way that was still surprising. The one-year loan prime rate was shaved by five basis points to 3.65%, not even matching the MLF reduction. On the other hand, the five-year loan prime rate was cut 15 bp to 4.30%. This seems to signal the emphasis on the property market, as mortgages are tied to the five-year rate, while short-term corporate loans are linked to the shorter tenor. The five-year rate was last cut in May and also by 15 bp. Still, these are small moves, and given continued pressures on the property sector, further action is likely, even if not immediately. In addition to the challenges from the property market and the ongoing zero-Covid policy, the extreme weather is a new headwind to the economy. The focus is on Sichuan, one of the most populous provinces and a key hub for manufacturing, especially EV batteries and solar panels. It appears that the aluminum smelters (one million tons of capacity) have been completed halted. The drought is exacerbating a local power shortage. Rainfall along the Yangtze River is nearly half of what is normally expected. Hydropower accounts for a little more than 80% of Sichuan power generation and the output has been halved. Officials have extended the power cuts that were to have ended on August 20 to August 25. Factories in Jiangsu and Chongqing are also facing outages. According to reports, Shanghai's Bund District turned off its light along the waterfront. Japan's Prime Minister Kishida tested positive for Covid over the weekend  He will stay in quarantine until the end of the month. In addition to his physical health, Kishida's political health may become an issue. Support for his government has plunged around 16 percentage points from a month ago to slightly more than 35% according to a Mainchi newspaper poll conducted over the weekend. The drag appears not to be coming from the economy but from the LDP's ties with the Unification Church. Meanwhile, Covid cases remain near record-highs in Japan, with almost 24.8k case found in Tokyo alone yesterday. Others are also wrestling with a surge in Covid cases. Hong Kong's infections reached a new five-month high, for example. The dollar reached nearly JPY137.45 in Tokyo before pulling back to JPY136.70 in early European turnover  It is the fifth session of higher highs and lows for the greenback. The upper Bollinger Band (two standard deviations above the 20-day moving average) is near JPY137.55 today. We suspect the dollar can re-challenge the session high in North America today. The Australian dollar is proving resilient today after plunging 3.45% last week. It is inside the pre-weekend range (~$0.6860-$0.6920). Still, we like it lower. Initial support is now seen around $0.6880, and a break could spur another test on the lows. That pre-weekend low coincides with the (61.8%) retracement of the rally from last month's low (~$0.6680) to the high on August 11 (~$0.7135). The Chinese yuan slumped to new lows for the year today. For the second consecutive session, the dollar gapped higher and pushed through CNY6.84. The PBOC set the dollar's reference rate at CNY6.8198. While this was lower than the CNY6.8213, it is not seen as much as a protest as an at attempt to keep the adjustment orderly. Europe Gazprom gave notice at the end of last week that gas shipments through the Nord Stream 1 pipeline would be stopped for three days (August 31-September 2) for maintenance  The European benchmark rose nearly 20.3% last week and 27% this month. It rose 35.2% last month and 65.5% in June. The year-to-date surge has been almost 380%. The energy shock seems sure to drive Europe into a recession. The flash August PMI out tomorrow is expected to see the composite falling further below the 50 boom/bust level. Bundesbank President Nagel, who will be attending the Jackson Hole symposium at the end of this week recognized the risk of recession but still argued for the ECB rate increases to anchor inflation expectations. The record from last month's ECB meeting will be published on Thursday. There are two keys here. First, is the color than can be gleaned from the threshold for using the new Transmission Protection Instrument. Second, the ECB lifted its forward guidance, which we argue is itself a type of forward guidance. Is there any insight into how it is leaning? The swaps market prices in another 50 bp hike, but a slight chance of a 75 bp move. The German 10-year breakeven (difference between the yield of the inflation linked bond and the conventional security) has been rising since last July and approached 2.50% last week  It has peaked in early May near 3% before dropping to almost 2% by the end of June. It is notable that Italy's 10-year breakeven, which has begun rising again since the third week of July, is almost 25 bp less than Germany. Several European countries, including Germany and Italy, have offered subsidies or VAT tax cut on gasoline that have offset some of the inflation pressures. Nagel, like Fed Chair Powell, BOE Governor Bailey, and BOJ Governor Kuroda place much emphasis on lowering wages to bring inflation down. Yet wages are rising less than inflation, and the cost-of-living squeeze is serious. They take for granted that business are simply passing on rising input costs, including labor costs, but if that were true, corporate earnings would not be rising, which they have. Costs are being passed through. Later this week, the UK regulator will announce the new gas cap for three months starting in October  Some reports warn of as much as an 80% increase. It is behind the Bank of England's warning that CPI could hit 13% then. The UK's wholesale benchmark has soared 47.5% this month after an 83.7% surge last month. Gas prices in the UK have nearly tripled this year. The UK's 10-year breakeven rose by 38 bp last week to 4.29%, a new three-month high. Although the UK economy shrank slightly in Q2 (0.1%), the BOE warned earlier this month that a five-quarter recession will likely begin in the fourth quarter. Unlike the eurozone, the UK's composite PMI has held above the 50 boom/bust level. Still, it is expected to have slowed for the fourth month in the past five when the August preliminary figures are presented tomorrow. The euro and sterling extended their pre-weekend declines  The euro slipped below parity to $0.9990. The multiyear low set last month was near $0.9950. The break of parity came in the early European turnover. Only a recovery of the $1.0050-60 area helps stabilizes the tone. Speculators in the futures market extended their next short euro position in the week through August 16 to a new two-year extreme and this was before the euro's breakdown in the second half of last week. The eurozone's preliminary August composite PMI due tomorrow is expected to show the contraction in output deepened while the market is expecting the Fed's Powell to reinforce a hawkish message on US rates. After falling to almost $1.1790 before the weekend, sterling made a marginal new low today, closer to $1.1780. The two-year low set last month was near $1.1760. The $1.1850-60 area offers an initial cap. Strike activity that hobbled the trains and underground spread to the UK's largest container port, Felixstowe, which handles about half of the country's containers. An eight-day strike began yesterday. Industrial activity is poised to spread, and this is prompting Truss and Sunak who are locked in a leadership challenge, to toughen their rhetoric against labor. America This is a busy week for the US  First, there is supply. Today features $96 bln in bills. Tomorrow sees a $60 bln three-week cash management bill and $44 bln 2-year notes. On Wednesday, the government sell another $22 bln of an existing two-year floating rate note, and $45 bln five-year note. Thursdays sale includes four- and eight-week bills and $37 bln seven-year notes. There are no long maturities being sold until mid-September. The economic data highlights include the preliminary PMI, where the estimate for services is forecast (median in Bloomberg's survey) to recover from the drop below the 50 boom/bust level. In the middle of the week, the preliminary estimate of July durable goods is expected. Shipments, which feed into GDP models is expected to rise by 0.3%. The revision of Q2 GDP the following day tends not to be a `big market movers. Friday is the big day. July merchandise trade and personal income and consumption measures are featured. Like we saw with the CPI, the headline PCE deflator is likely to ease while the core measure proves a bit stickier. Shortly after they are released, Powell addresses the Jackson Hole gathering.  Canada has a light economic diary this week, but Mexico's a bit busier  The highlight for Mexico will be the biweekly CPI on Wednesday. Price pressures are likely to have increased and this will encourage views that Banxico will likely hike by another 75 bp when it meets late next month (September 29). The July trade balance is due at the end of the week. It has been deteriorating sharply since February and likely continued.    The US dollar rose more than 1% against the Canadian dollar over the past three sessions. It edged a little higher today but stopped shy of the CAD1.3035 retracement objective. Initial support is seen near CAD1.2975-80. With sharp opening losses expected for US equities, it may discourage buying of the Canadian dollar in the early North American activity. The greenback is rising against the Mexican peso for the fifth consecutive session. However, it has not taken out the pre-weekend high near MXN20.2670. Still, the next important upside technical target is closer to MXN20.3230, which corresponds to the middle of this month's range. Support is now seen near MXN20.12.    Disclaimer   Source: No Relief for the Euro or Sterling
Euro (EUR) And British Pound (GBP) Losing The Race Against U.S. Dollar (USD)! 1 Year Statistics

Euro (EUR) And British Pound (GBP) Losing The Race Against U.S. Dollar (USD)! 1 Year Statistics

Conotoxia Comments Conotoxia Comments 22.08.2022 16:44
The recent behavior of the euro and the British pound and their potential weakness against the rest of the world's major currencies is beginning to bring concerns about a sustained deterioration in the prospects for these currencies. As Bloomberg commentators note, the behavior of the pound and the euro are worrisome. We have recently seen large shifts in the euro and pound's short-term market interest rates against the U.S. dollar, with a simultaneous weakening of the GBP/USD and EUR/USD exchange rates. Last week was the worst week for the pound in nearly two years, and at the same time, the yield on the UK's 2-year bond rose by 50 basis points. Typically, the opposite happens in developed markets. Expectations of a central bank rate hike and thus an increase in short-term market yields generally strengthen the currency. The collapse in the correlation between the exchange rate and interest rates is usually associated with emerging markets, which may have lost the battle for the credibility of keeping inflation within the inflation target. The energy dependence of the UK and Europe as a whole means that their balance sheets could deteriorate in the near future, while energy commodity inflation shows no signs of abating. Rate hikes in such a situation may not stem the tide of depreciation of the aforementioned currencies, Bloomberg reports. Thus, it seems that the winter months for the EUR and GBP may be a kind of test of the credibility of the economies in the eyes of investors. Their abandonment of investments in the EUR and GBP despite rising interest rates could be potentially worrying. Moreover, it could change the entire scene of the foreign exchange market. In the dollar index, the euro has a weighting of more than 57 percent, while the pound has a weighting of more than 11 percent. Together, these two currencies alone have a weighting of almost 70 percent. Since the beginning of the year, the euro against the U.S. dollar has lost almost 12 percent, and the British pound almost 13 percent. In contrast, since August 2021, the euro has lost almost 15 percent to the dollar, and the British pound less than 14 percent. Of the major currencies, only the Japanese yen has fared worse and has weakened by almost 20 percent against the U.S. dollar over the year. Daniel Kostecki, Director of the Polish branch of Conotoxia Ltd. (Conotoxia investment service) Materials, analysis and opinions contained, referenced or provided herein are intended solely for informational and educational purposes. Personal opinion of the author does not represent and should not be constructed as a statement or an investment advice made by Conotoxia Ltd. All indiscriminate reliance on illustrative or informational materials may lead to losses. Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future results. CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 82.59% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.   Source: Pound and euro similar to currencies of emerging markets?
Reserve Bank's Of Australia Meeting Minutes Didn't Surprise Markets. RBA May Be Thinking Of The October Hike, Could Australian Dollar (AUD) Be Fluctuating Shortly?

Breaking News: Eurozone: Is Europe In Recession Already!? PMI Plunged!

ING Economics ING Economics 23.08.2022 11:49
The August PMI indicates this economy is heading towards recession quickly if it’s not already in one. Meanwhile, weaker demand is leading to some fading of inflationary pressure, but the question is how soaring energy costs will impact this in the coming months The post-pandemic rebound in consumer spending on services is fading rapidly   The composite PMI fell from 49.9 to 49.2. Anything under 50 indicates falling business activity, so the survey is hinting at a contraction that started in the third quarter. This is consistent with our forecasts, and the colour that the survey gives on the weakness is not pretty. The manufacturing output PMI ticked up a bit in August but remained deep in contraction territory at 46.5. New orders continue to fall and inventory build-up is very strong, which reflects the squeeze in demand that the eurozone economy is currently experiencing. The services PMI fell rapidly in August to a level indicating stagnation in activity at 50.2. Demand also weakened for the service sector as the post-pandemic rebound in consumer spending on services is fading rapidly. The good news is coming from the inflation side. While high costs continue to play a major role in weakening demand, the pace of inflation seems to be fading among manufacturers and in the service sector. Weaker demand and easing input prices are helping selling price inflation moderate a bit, but the question is whether this can last now that natural gas prices are reaching new records again. For the months ahead, economic weakness is set to persist. We expect that a eurozone recession has started as the purchasing power squeeze in the eurozone economy continues. For the ECB, this complicates matters significantly, but we do think that September will still see a 50 basis point rate hike. After that, we think the rapid cooling of the economy will cause the ECB to pause its hike cycle, if we can call it that… Read this article on THINK TagsInflation GDP Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Next Week The Focus Will Be On "Referendums" On Russia-Controlled

Why Is Euro Falling? Heroic Ukrainian War, Strong Dollar And More

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 23.08.2022 19:33
Relevance up to 13:00 2022-08-24 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. The euro and the pound reacted with a decline to the news that economic activity continues to weaken worldwide, and Europe was no exception. It has increased fears that rising prices and the war in Ukraine will lead the world into recession. Accordingly, nothing is surprising in that the euro has fallen below parity against the US dollar as the demand for safe-haven assets has increased again. As today's data showed, the volume of production in the eurozone, which includes 19 countries, decreased for the second month. In August, record inflation for energy and food severely undermined demand, pushing more and more sectors down. The problem also lies in the high activity in the service sector, such as tourism, which has almost stopped. Only in the UK did the purchasing managers' index manage to stay above 50 points, which indicates an increase in activity. But this is what concerns the service sector. Manufacturing activity showed an unexpectedly large drop. In Asia, Japan's output also declined due to a surge in COVID-19 cases, further reducing demand, which is already struggling with the weight of rising inflation. Australia's services sector contracted for the first time in seven months, somewhat offsetting tourism growth. All these data paint a bleak picture for the global economy, as most central banks remain focused on curbing inflation by raising borrowing costs. A little later today, several US PMI data will be released, showing improvements in manufacturing and services. But the published figures of the eurozone indicate a contraction of the economy in the third quarter of this year because the decline in production is currently observed in several sectors, from manufacturers of basic materials and cars to companies engaged in tourism and real estate. Even more painful for investors was the news that Germany began to sink, which showed the sharpest decline since June 2020. All the efforts of the authorities to reduce dependence on Russian natural gas against the background of a reduction in supplies after Ukraine start winning the war. In France, things are also no better – activity there has decreased for the first time in a year and a half. Europe's largest economies cannot withstand record inflation and growing uncertainty. The indicator of the French private sector activity in August reached the lowest level since the failures and amounted to 51 points, while production activity decreased to 49 points. New orders declined both in the service sector and manufacturing, while companies quickly lost confidence in their future. In Germany, the index of business activity in the manufacturing sector turned out to be slightly better than economists' forecasts, but this did not help much, as it amounted to 49.8 points – this indicates a decline in the sphere. The index of business activity in the services sector completely collapsed to 48.2 points. The European economy is experiencing a deepening decline in private sector business activity, riddled with further uncertainty. Against this background, the euro continues to fall. Bulls need to correct the situation very quickly and return to 0.9940 since the problems will only increase without this level. Going beyond 0.9940 will give confidence to buyers of risky assets, opening a direct road to 1.0000 and 1.0130. If there is a further decline in the euro, buyers will certainly show something around 0.9860, but this will not help them much since updating the next annual minimum will only strengthen the bear market. Having missed 0.9860, you can say goodbye to hopes for a correction, which will open a direct road to 0.9820. Nothing good happens for the pound. Buyers need to do everything to stay above 1.1730 – the nearest support level. Without doing this, you can say goodbye to the hopes of recovery. Moreover, in this case, we can expect a new major movement of the trading instrument to the levels: 1.1690 and 1.1640. A breakdown of these ranges will open a direct road to 1.1580. It will be possible to talk about stopping the bearish scenario only after the breakdown and consolidation above 1.1780, allowing the bulls to count on a recovery to 1.1820 and 1.1870. Source: Forex Analysis & Reviews: The answer to the question of why the euro is falling so much
Europe: French Business Climate Went Down! How Much? Check It Out!

France: In August Business Climate Indicator Hit 103

ING Economics ING Economics 25.08.2022 14:44
France's business climate stabilised in August at 103, painting a more favourable picture than the PMI indices. However, the sub-indices do not give cause for optimism and there is little doubt that the autumn and winter will be more difficult. Shoppers at the Galeries Lafayette department store on the Champs-Elysees in Paris   The business climate indicator, published by INSEE, stabilised in August at 103, above the long-term average (100). The decline in industry (from 106 to 104) was offset by an improvement in retail trade (from 96 to 99). In the services sector, the indicator remained almost stable at 106. The economic situation depicted by the business climate indicators seems more favourable than the PMI indices for August published on Tuesday suggested. Both the composite PMI and the PMI for the manufacturing sector were below the 50 level, which signifies contraction. Although business sentiment is generally above its long-term average in most sectors, some components of the index are more worrying. In particular, in industry, the stock of finished goods is rising sharply and is back above its long-term average for the first time since July 2020. At the same time, both global and foreign order books are deteriorating. After months of supply difficulties, stocks are now high and will need to be cleared in the coming months, which, combined with a slowdown in global demand, is likely to have a negative impact on production. The fall in production could therefore be faster than the fall in demand, thus accentuating the contraction in activity. We see a similar pattern in the retail sector, where the assessment of expected sales is deteriorating sharply while inventories are rising. Moreover, while industrial managers remain relatively positive about expected production in the coming months, they have revised their production assessment downwards sharply in recent months. This indicates that industrial activity is weaker than expected already this quarter.  There's more optimism in the service sector There's more optimism in the service sector. This is particularly the case in the accommodation and catering sub-sector, thanks to an excellent tourist summer in France. The general and personal outlook of business leaders in the services sector has improved and the economic uncertainty felt has decreased. There is little doubt that the service sector will make a more positive contribution to economic growth in the third quarter than industry, although optimism in the tourism sector could diminish rapidly as the summer fades.  All in all, after a rather good spring, with second quarter GDP up 0.5% Quarter-on-Quarter after the first quarter's drop (-0.2%), and a summer boosted by tourism and good weather, all indicators are now pointing to a much more difficult autumn and winter. The global slowdown in demand, the deterioration in consumer and business confidence, the risks to energy supplies and inflation, which is reaching new heights and undermining purchasing power, are likely to push the European and French economies straight into recession. While French GDP this year could grow by around 2.2% thanks to the second quarter and the carry-over effect, growth will stall in 2023 and will probably be close to 0% for the whole of the year. Read this article on THINK TagsGDP France Eurozone Business climate Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Hungarian Forint (HUF) May Be Rising! ING Economics Expects Bank Of Hungary To Hike The Rate By 100bp!

Hungarian Forint (HUF) May Be Rising! ING Economics Expects Bank Of Hungary To Hike The Rate By 100bp!

ING Economics ING Economics 26.08.2022 12:09
We expect the Hungarian central bank to continue its decisive tightening with another 100bp hike next week. Our updated inflation outlook leads us to expect additional measures to hike rates sooner rather than later, which could reduce the excess liquidity, thus improving the monetary transmission and supporting the forint The Hungarian National Bank in Budapest +100bp ING's call Change in the base rate The rationale behind our call The better-than-expected second-quarter GDP growth cemented our view that this year’s performance will be sound. Our upgraded outlook sees a 5.2% GDP growth in 2022, which takes into account strong first and second quarters but weak third and fourth quarters. We see a technical recession coming, caused by an unfolding cost-of-living crisis. Therefore, we have downgraded our 2023 outlook to 1.0-1.5% with further downside risks. Our view about the cost-of-living crisis is based on our updated inflation forecast. The changes in the fuel price cap regulation will add roughly 1ppt to the August inflation, while the modified utility bill support scheme and significantly hiked public parking prices could boost the CPI by another 1-1.5ppt from September. Whether the peak comes in October or later depends on the fuel price cap, as it expires on 1 October if the government doesn't change the decree. We expect a gradual phase-out of the fuel price cap, so the peak could come in December at 22% year-on-year. In all, the regulatory changes, the upside surprise in July inflation and the rising commodity prices lead us to call a 14% headline inflation in 2022, followed by a 15.3% average CPI in 2023. As for now, we expect price changes to drop to the range of 3-4% only in the first half of 2024. At first sight, this screams for more tightening. But in our view, the terminal rate could be more of a function of the behaviour of the forint rather than the CPI peak. Moreover, despite the already double-digit interest rate environment, the National Bank of Hungary (NBH) couldn’t shield the forint from the shocks of a confidence crisis. A crisis that lies in the Rule-of-Law debate and the negative impact of the energy crisis on the economic outlook and the external balance. ING's inflation and base rate forecasts for Hungary Source: HCSO, NBH, ING We see further rate hikes and more In this regard, we maintain our 14% terminal rate call, reached by the end of this year. The next step in this route comes on 30 August with yet another 100bp move to 11.75%. But in our assessment, interest rate hikes alone won’t do the trick to give the forint enough support. What could help is an active quantitative tightening to reduce the excess liquidity in the system. However, due to the structure of the central bank’s balance sheet, we don’t see this as a viable option. However, we could think about some options which could have the same impact, reducing the excess liquidity in a significant way. First, a stricter reserve requirement regulation could do the trick. The ratio is now only at 1%. Here the ECB’s two-tier system, or more recently the Polish central bank, could provide an example, as the latter raised the RRR from 0.5% to 2.0% last October. Or there is the reverse FX swaps example. First, it was an ad-hoc tool, then a quarter-end tool which finally became a regular one, improving the monetary transmission in short-dated rates. The same route is open in front of the central bank’s short-term discount bill: making this instrument a permanent tool, tendering regularly and not just occasionally at the end of quarters. Of course, the NBH could come up with yet another creative, out-of-the-box solution to give an effective sidekick to its interest rate cycle. But one thing is for sure: the sooner the better. What to expect in rates and FX markets FX weakness in recent days has boosted market expectations and pushed the priced-in terminal rate just above 14%, in line with our forecast but taking a reasonable cutting trajectory for the end of next year. And given the current volatility and low liquidity, it is hard to look for opportunities in this environment. For this meeting, expect the markets to raise their short-term bets for the terminal rate even further under the prospect of headlines coming from the NBH, which is the only central bank open to rate hikes in the CEE region at the moment. This should lead to further flattening of the curve as seen in recent days. However, from a long-term perspective, the inversion of the HUF curve remains extreme, and we should see some normalisation later on, just as the fly trades in the last few days. Hungarian yield curve Source: Government Debt Management Agency, ING   On the bond side, we estimate AKK (the government debt management agency) has covered roughly 80% of the total financing needs, but supply should remain buoyant in the months ahead. On the other hand, given the recent sell-off across the CEE region, we see Hungarian government bonds (HGBs) as the most expensive within the region at the moment and are awaiting a correction in nominal and relative terms. So, we like HGB asset-swap (ASW) cheapeners. CEE currencies vs EUR (1 Feb = 100%) Source: NBH, ING   The forint has recently become heavily dependent on gas prices, adding to uncertainty about further moves. Moreover, markets are waiting for progress on the government's negotiations with the European Commission. We still believe that a positive scenario may offer the forint the biggest appreciation within the region, however a bumpy road is a more likely scenario at the moment. For the NBH meeting next week, we expect a short-term strengthening of the forint in response to the decision, however we believe this would only be a temporary boost and the real story of the forint is elsewhere, i.e. the gas and EU story. Read this article on THINK TagsPreview NBH National Bank of Hungary Monetary policy Hungary Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The Pressure On The Euro Clearly Persisted After The Recent Events

Breaking: ECB Has Another Reason To Be Hawkish! Non-financial Corporate Lending Rose!

ING Economics ING Economics 26.08.2022 12:53
Bank lending to non-financial corporates continued to be surprisingly strong at the start of summer despite higher rates and high economic uncertainty. A hawkish sign for the ECB Rising corporate bank lending in the eurozone is a hawkish sign for the ECB ahead of its September meeting   Credit to the private sector continued to grow strongly in July. This is somewhat surprising given higher interest rates, low confidence and banks indicating tighter credit standards and weaker demand for borrowing. Nevertheless, growth for non-financial corporate bank lending accelerated from 6.8% year-on-year to 7.7% YoY in July. This sounds dramatic but is mainly due to a large base effect. Nevertheless, month-on-month bank lending to non-financial corporates was still 0.9% in July, well above recent trend growth. Household credit growth slowed from 4.6 to 4.5%. The trend in household bank lending growth is slowing at the moment, which hints at a more immediate effect of higher interest rates. Money growth continues to slow rapidly as the ECB has stopped quantitative easing (QE) and increased interest rates. Broad money growth (M3) fell from 5.7 to 5.5% YoY in July. The narrower estimate M1, considered to be a better leading indicator of economic activity, dropped from 7.2% YoY to 6.7% YoY growth. The tightening of the monetary stance is adding to concerns about economic growth, as signs are becoming clearer that the economy could have already started a mild recession at this point. September ECB Meeting For the ECB, continued strong growth in corporate bank lending could be taken as a sign that the neutral rate is still a bit away. Sliding consumer borrowing points in the other direction, but overall this is a hawkish sign ahead of the September meeting. We expect the ECB to move by another 50 basis points now before signs of a recessionary economic environment become more widespread. Read this article on THINK TagsGDP Eurozone ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The Italian Elections And Their Impact On The Euro, Interest Rates Around The World

Italy - Q3 GDP May Not Decline Thanks To Tourism

ING Economics ING Economics 26.08.2022 14:07
The deterioration is more marked in manufacturing and less so in services, which are benefiting, alongside retailers, from a prolonged tourism-related re-opening effect. We expect Italy to avoid a quarter-on-quarter GDP contraction in the third quarter of the year, but not in the fourth quarter We think the Italian economy will avoid a GDP contraction in the third quarter, mainly on the back of a protracted tourism-related re-opening effect   Qualitative evidence continues to point to a deterioration of the economic environment over the third quarter. This is what confidence data for August are telling us, with some exceptions. Manufacturers more downbeat This is more apparent in the manufacturing sector, where confidence fell two points between July and August, the lowest reading since last February. The fall in confidence was more marked for intermediate and investment goods, where orders are softening and inventories of finished goods are increasing, but with only a limited bearing on production expectations. Consumer goods were less affected, though. Here, the softer deterioration in orders did not prevent a soft improvement in production expectations. Retailers substantially more upbeat, likely reflecting an ongoing re-opening effect In a way, the detail in the manufacturing survey shows that in the midst of the summer, the re-opening effect which had likely strongly affected 2Q22 growth data (we will know the details next week) was still at work in 3Q22. This seems confirmed by other parts of the business survey, more specifically by the sharp increase in retailer confidence, which reached pre-Covid levels in August. Tourism businesses happy about current activity levels Confidence held up better in the service sectors, where the headline index lost only half a point. The re-opening effect is still at play there too, but some warning signals are starting to emerge, in particular in the tourism sector (where we still lack official data on arrivals for 3Q22). Here, judgements about current turnover are even improving, but the evaluation of orders is softening and expectations about future orders are dropping. Comforting rebound in consumer confidence The idea that the re-opening effect might have continued over the summer is finally supported by another bit of good news coming from the consumer front: the rebound of consumer confidence is back to June’s level. The absolute level of the index remains very low (close to 2020 lows), but August’s rebound signals that the deterioration did not accelerate over the summer. The resilience of the labour market (helped by tourism-related hirings) and the strong measures put in place by the government to limit the impact of gas and electricity price shocks on households’ balance sheets have very likely supported consumers’ spirits. Italy might avoid a GDP contraction in 3Q22 All in all, today’s confidence report supports our view that over 3Q22, the Italian economy will temporarily manage to avoid a GDP contraction, mainly on the back of a protracted tourism-related re-opening effect. However, as the summer season is over, we suspect that both services and manufacturing will act as a drag on growth, bringing GDP growth into negative territory both in 4Q22 and 1Q23. As far as 2022 is concerned, we confirm our forecast of a 3.3% average GDP growth. Read this article on THINK TagsItaly GDP Italy Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Forex: Euro On Holidays. Do Not Count Your Chickens Before They Are Hatched!

Forex: Euro On Vacations. Do Not Count Your Chickens Before They Are Hatched!

Kim Cramer Larsson Kim Cramer Larsson 30.08.2022 08:53
US 2-years Treasury yields is testing June peak at 3.45 forming what looks like an Ascending triangle like pattern. If yields close above 3.45 first target is 3.73 but a move to around 3.90-4.00% is likely.If rejected at the 3.45 we could see US 2-year yields test the lower rising trendline.However, RSI is above 60 with no divergence indicating higher levels are the most likely scenario Source: Bloomberg. US 10-years Treasury yields is struggling to break the 3.11 resistance just peaking above to be rejected at the 0.618 retracement at 3.13. Now being rejected twice the past week it is having another go today. If closing above 3.13 there is some resistance at 3.27 but June peak at 3.50 is likely to be tested.However, the US 10-years is moving in what looks like a rising wedge meaning if it is once again rejected and closes below 3%, a correction down to around the 0.618 retracement at 2.76 is likely. However, RSI is above 60 and no divergence indication yields will break higher Source: Saxo Group The US 10-years Treasury future has broken below 0.618 retracement and support at 117 5/32. If it closes below, it has further confirmed the downtrend and is on course to test June lows at around 114 7/32. Some support at around 116   Source: Saxo Group Euro Bunds gapped lower this morning below key support at 149.75 testing 0.618 retracement at 147.94. RSI is below 40 and no divergence indicating lower levels. We could see buyers trying to close the gap but the former support at 149.75 is now a strong resistance.Some support at around 145.16 Source: Saxo Group   Source: Technical Update - US 2 and 10-years Treasury yields testing key resistance levels. Euro Bund future hit by heavy selling  
Risk Appetite Across Markets Taking A Hit After Fed Chair Powell's Hawkish Speech

Euro (EUR) May Be Skyrocketing Soon! Jackson Hole Meeting Wasn't Only About Fed's Hawks

ING Economics ING Economics 30.08.2022 12:57
We will remember Jackson Hole not just for Powell's hawkish speech, but also for the ECB gearing up its own hawkishness – 75bp hikes are not just for the Fed. Even if just an attempt to invoke the market's help to do the heavy lifting of tightening financial conditions, near term it means more curve flattening. Accelerating inflation still justifies the means  Hawkish ECB communications shift bear flattens the curve... EUR money markets have clearly set their sights on a 75bp hike at the September meeting after the string of hawkish comments over the weekend. The ESTR OIS (euro short-term rate overnight indexed swap) forward for the September reserve period is now at 65bp, implying a 60% probability for a larger move. It was the European Central Bank’s Robert Holzman, Martins Kazaks and Klaas Knot who all hinted more-or-less explicitly at a 75bp hike being on the table while others have called for more forceful action. France’s François Villeroy appears to suggest more frontloading with a call for showing determination now to avoid “unnecessarily brutal” hikes at a later stage. The significance of that hawkish communications shift was underscored by the ECB’s Isabel Schnabel who warned that greater sacrifices may be needed to bring inflation under control. And indeed the ECB’s current official economic outlook certainly still looks overly optimistic against the backdrop of a deepening energy crunch. This all spells further yield curve flattening as the ECB looks more prepared to hike even into a downturn.    The barrage of hawkish ECB comments means more EUR curve flattening is on the cards Source: Refinitiv, ING ...but may signal more reliance on the market to do the heavy lifting While acknowledging further normalisation is appropriate, the ECB’s chief economist Philip Lane struck a more balanced tone. In light of high uncertainty, he argued for a steady pace of hikes to the terminal rate. Smaller hikes would be less likely to cause adverse side effects and make it easier to correct course. Under the current circumstances, we suspect that 50bp would fit his idea of “steady” and “small”. He also notes that policy works through its influence on the entire yield curve. After the July rate hike, higher market rates have meant that the monetary tightening that has already occurred is far greater than just the first policy rate increase. In particular, he notes that mid and longer-end segments of the yield curve are most important for determining financing conditions in the economy and that these are more sensitive to expectations of the terminal rate than the precise path of policy rates towards it. That insight leads us back to one possible aim of the more hawkish communications twist: let the market do the heavy lifting of tightening financing conditions. As long as inflation risks are skewed to the upside, hawkish talk is likely to persist. And as long as the market plays ball, it may not necessarily translate into an even larger 75bp hike. However, one can also argue that when relying on hawkish talk it is even easier to eventually correct course than it is with a strategy of “smaller hikes". At this point, we still think that the ECB will significantly underdeliver compared to what markets are pricing. The crucial question is just when this notion will dawn on markets. The EUR swap curve prices front-loaded hikes in 2022 Source: Refinitiv, ING ECB quantitative tightening on the back burner? It appears that a discussion on quantitative tightening might not be as imminent, which should also come as a relief for periphery bonds. Accelerated ECB rate hikes and political uncertainty in Italy have already brought the benchmark 10Y spread of Italian bonds over German Bunds back towards 230bp. Bringing quantitative tightening to the table could tip the fragile balance towards more widening, even after the introduction of the Transmission Protection Mechanism. But it is quite notable that amid the latest hawkish push on rates, Italy's spreads have actually managed to eke out a small tightening versus Bunds. The Council's views on quantitative tightening seem not quite as aligned as their view on rates. After being brought up last week by the Bundesbank's Nagel and also by subtle hints in the ECB meeting minutes, the ECB’s Olli Rehn now said it was too early to publicly discuss quantitative tightening. While Kazaks said it could be discussed, he added it was too early to implement. Today's events and market view The reason for the ECB's hawkish turn will become more obvious today. As markets are looking for a further acceleration in inflation, all eyes are on the German and Spanish readings today ahead of tomorrow's eurozone flash CPI release which the consensus sees heading to 9%. The core rate is seen accelerating to 4.1%. Also to watch are the business climate indicators today, economic sentiment and consumer confidence, all of which are expected to come in softer. The 1y1y ESTR forward is back to 2.13%, though that is still short of the peak seen in June when it topped 2.5%. It might still push higher from here, but the long end should increasingly lag. In primary markets, Italy will reopen the 5Y, 8Y and 10Y sectors as well as a floating rate bond for a total of up to €8bn. Read this article on THINK TagsRates Daily Federal Reserve ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Forecasts Expect Another Decline In Growth In The Eurozone, A Yen's Volatility And More

Eurozone: Spanish Inflation Decreased Because Of Lower Fuel Prices!

ING Economics ING Economics 30.08.2022 13:15
Spanish inflation fell to 10.4% year-on-year in August from 10.8% in July, driven by a drop in fuel prices. But core inflation is still rising, suggesting that a downward inflation trend will be at best very gradual With most of Europe likely to fall into recession, the contribution of tourism to Spain's economic growth might fall Spanish inflation dropped to 10.4% year-on-year thanks to a drop in fuel prices Spanish inflation decreased to 10.4% year-on-year in August from 10.8% in July, according to data released this morning by the National Institute of Statistics. The drop is mainly driven by a decrease in fuel prices. Core inflation, excluding the more volatile food and energy prices, however, rose to 6.4% year-on-year in August from 6.1% last month. On a monthly basis, prices rose by 0.1% in August, compared with a -0.3% decline in July. Although the component breakdown is not available yet, the statistical office confirmed that electricity and food prices have continued their upward trend. Despite the gas price cap, electricity prices continue to go up From mid-June, Spain and Portugal set a price cap on gas for power production. Through this measure, the two Iberian countries aim to bring the total energy bill down by decoupling the price of gas and electricity. Although the measure moderated price increases, it didn’t succeed in bringing them down. The gas price cap has also had the undesired effect of reducing the attractiveness of other energy sources, leading to an increased dependence on gas. According to network operator Enagas SA, gas demand was 126% higher in July compared with the same month last year. On top of that, electricity prices have been further impacted by the drought and heat waves in the country. Hydropower plants ran last week at only 37% of their total capacity due to the low water levels. High inflation is likely to push the economy into recession this winter In the second quarter, GDP grew by 1.1% thanks to strong consumption and a great recovery in tourism activity. However, we expect growth to grind to a halt in the third quarter and to slip into recession from the fourth quarter onwards. The rise in energy costs might fuel another round of price increases deepening the cost of living crisis. For 2022 as a whole, we increase our inflation forecast to 9.0%. As we expect energy prices to stay elevated for a while, inflation will likely remain in double digits over the autumn before slowly coming down. This might lead to a severe contraction in household consumption after the summer. In July, Spanish consumer confidence fell below the Covid-19 pandemic low showing that consumers are increasingly worried about high inflation. In addition, with the rest of Europe also likely to fall into recession, the contribution of tourism to growth might fade again. Consumer confidence in Spain is falling more rapidly than the eurozone average Read this article on THINK TagsSpain Inflation GDP Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The European Central Bank Staff Macroeconomic Projections For The Euro Area

Eurozone: Economic Sentiment Indicator Decreased

ING Economics ING Economics 30.08.2022 14:18
The Economic Sentiment Indicator fell modestly from 98.9 to 97.6 in August. Both industry and services indicate weakening economic activity. Meanwhile, recession prospects are causing more moderation in selling price expectations for the months ahead We expect the eurozone economy to enter a shallow recession in the current quarter Recent production for industry and demand for the services industry fell considerably in August and the manufacturing sector indicates rapidly weakening order books A recession is drawing closer as businesses are becoming more pessimistic about economic activity at this point. Recent production for industry and demand for the services industry fell considerably in August and the manufacturing sector indicates rapidly weakening order books. Fewer businesses have been hiring as weaker activity demands fewer workers, although the positive note is that the Employment Expectations index remains above its long-term trend. Nevertheless, we do expect that the economy will enter a shallow recession in the current quarter. Most notable from the survey is that selling price expectations from both manufacturers and service providers have been falling for four months in a row now. Generally correlated with core inflation, this begs the question of whether peak inflation is indeed drawing closer. The question here is how the next jump in gas and electricity prices will put pressure on margins, which could lead to more pressure on core inflation in the months ahead. But the rapidly slowing economy is clearly cooling inflation prospects as well. Read this article on THINK TagsInflation GDP Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Financial Conditions Look Quite Scary. How Central Banks Fight Inflation?

German Inflation Came In At 8.8%, Hitting Levels Not Seen In 50 Years

Rebecca Duthie Rebecca Duthie 30.08.2022 15:26
Summary: The rise in prices was led by those of food and energy. ECB interest rate decision. German inflation soars in the wake of rising energy prices Energy prices drove up inflation in August, pushing it to its highest level in over 50 years and surpassing a previous high set only three months earlier, statistics revealed on Tuesday. The acceleration of German inflation to a record level due to rising energy costs is supporting expectations for a sizable interest rate increase at the ECB meeting next week. Following an unexpected 8.5% increase in July, consumer prices, which are harmonised to be comparable with inflation data from other European Union countries (HICP), rose by 8.8% annually, according to the federal statistics agency. According to Germany's statistics office, the rise in prices was led by those of food and energy, however their effect was largely mitigated by temporary government aid, such as a fuel refund and incredibly inexpensive public transportation. According to the same statistics office, food costs rose 16.6% year over year in August compared to the same month the previous year, while energy prices rose 35.6% higher. The increase in August includes anti-inflationary measures like lower fuel taxes and cheaper public transportation tickets. These restrictions are about to expire, which suggests that price increase may pick up speed. Data on inflation in the eurozone are coming on Wednesday, and another record surge of 9% is anticipated. According to the Bundesbank, Germany's inflation percentage will reach around 10% in the fourth quarter of 2022, and the prognosis is very uncertain because of the "unclear situation" on the commodity markets, which is a result of Russia's conflict in Ukraine. The ECB is faced with not just the difficulty of extraordinary inflation but also the ensuing cost-of-living pressure that some analysts claim has already caused a recession in the 19-nation bloc. That is the biggest concern for the continent as a whole. While a half-point rate increase by the ECB is anticipated on September 8, some have suggested a larger 75 basis-point increase, similar to the more aggressive actions the Federal Reserve has recently taken. Positive news emerged on Tuesday as energy prices in Europe decreased as a result of the European Commission's plans to act quickly. Despite the risky nature of trading, nations in the region have been successful in filling natural gas storage facilities in time for the winter heating season. Sources: reuters.com, bloomberg.com
Swiss Franc (CHF) And Norwegian Krone (NOK) Weakness

Swiss Franc (CHF) And Norwegian Krone (NOK) Weakness

John Hardy John Hardy 31.08.2022 16:54
Summary:  The G3 currencies are chopping around aimlessly versus one another while the bigger story afoot across FX is weakness in the rest of the G10 currencies, particularly in the Swiss franc and Norwegian krone, the currencies that had formerly traded the strongest against the euro as a bit of ECB catchup on tightening guidance and easing energy prices. NOK is particularly weak today, perhaps on fears that the EU is set to cap energy and power prices and may twist Norway’s arm in the process? FX Trading focus: EUR relief and squeeze for now, but remember longer term picture. Is NOK suddenly worried about price caps for its energy exports? Yesterday I highlighted the squeeze risk in EURUSD If the 1.0100 area traded, but the US dollar has remained quite firm, while the real story is in the euro upside squeeze elsewhere, particularly against the Swiss franc as the ECB has gotten religion on the need to bring forward and raise its tightening plans, while the collapse in oil prices and natural gas prices to a lesser degree over the last couple of days has EURNOK shorts running for cover. Yesterday, another flurry of ECB speakers at a conference saw ECB rate expectations pulled back a bit higher as some, including Nagel, argued for a front-loading of rate hikes, which has the market leaning a big harder in favour of a 75-basis point move at next Thursday’s ECB meeting. Still, as the weeks wear on, it is important to realize that Germany being ahead of its schedule on refilling gas storage reserves doesn’t mean the country can meet anything approaching normal gas demand through the winter unless Russia turns up the gas flow rates or the gas can be sourced from elsewhere, as storage is only a fraction of the amount need for winter consumption rates as heating demand jumps. The EU has called an emergency meeting next Friday that will likely result in a cap on electricity and perhaps also natural gas prices for some end users, a  move that will prevent many consumers and especially small businesses from going cold over the winter or going broke or having too much of their budgets swallowed by energy costs. But such a move to cap prices will also have the typical result that demand will remain higher than it would otherwise, and that will have to mean rationing of power/gas, a dicey process to manage. Either way, real GDP will decline if less gas is available, even if Russia does turn back on the gas after turning it off today for a few days of purported maintenance and continues to deliver the trickle of flows that it has been delivering recently. The August US ADP payrolls data release today is the first using a “revamped” methodology that is meant to provide more time and higher frequency data on the labor market, as well as information on pay rises, given the ADP access to salary information. The headline release of +125k was disappointing, but it will take time for the market to trust this data point even if the new methodology eventually proved better for calling the eventual turn in the labor market. Yesterday’s Jul. JOLTS jobs openings survey was nearly a million jobs higher than expected after the prior month was revised solidly higher, suggesting a still very strong demand for labor. The USD picture is still choppy and uncertain, with today’s ADP number chopping long treasury yields back lower after they trade to new local highs. The Friday’s official jobs report will weigh more heavily, with earning surprises potentially the largest factor, while the September 13 CPI data point will weigh heaviest of all ahead of the Sep 21 FOMC meeting. As discussed in this morning’s Saxo Market Call podcast, an Atlanta Fed measure of “sticky inflation” is showing unprecedented relative strength to the BLS’s standard core CPI measure. Chart: EURNOKEURNOK has backed up aggressively higher on the huge haircut to crude oil prices over the last couple of sessions and as the ECB has delivered a far sterner message on its intent to bring forward and steepen rate tightening intentions. As well, if the EU emergency meeting sees the spotlight turned on Norway’s gargantuan profits it is earning on oil and gas profits from the reduction of Russian deliveries, the EURNOK rise could be aggravated well through the pivotal 10.00 area. Source: Saxo Group Table: FX Board of G10 and CNH trend evolution and strength.The US dollar remains strong, with Euro flashing hot in the momentum higher – although questions remain how long this can last. Sterling continues its ugly slide, while CHF has lost moment likely on EURCHF flows, and NOK is losing altitude very quickly as noted above. Source: Bloomberg and Saxo Group Table: FX Board Trend Scoreboard for individual pairs.USDCAD and AUDUSD are looking at interesting levels, with the former having now more decisively broken the range, while AUDUSD is teetering. Note the EURCHF and EURNOK readings trying to flip to positive here, together with other EUR pairs. USDNOK has flipped positive in rapid fashion after yesterday’s flip higher. Source: Bloomberg and Saxo Group Source: FX Update: NOK, NOK, who’s there? Energy price caps?
The Italian Elections And Their Impact On The Euro, Interest Rates Around The World

Italian Inflation May Beat Records As The Preliminary NIC CPI Shows 8.4%!

ING Economics ING Economics 01.09.2022 08:08
With energy still in the driving seat, calls for more government action are intensifying. For headline inflation to reach its peak, we will likely have to wait for the incoming recession to set in and impact business pricing power It is clear that the measures put in place by the government has only managed to slow down the acceleration of inflation Headline inflation at a 37-year high In August, the preliminary NIC CPI index increased by 8.4% year-on-year (from 7.9% in July), the highest level since December 1985, and the harmonised index by 9% YoY (from 8.4% in July), once again beating the consensus forecasts. Istat reports that the main drivers of the acceleration were non-regulated energy goods (+41.6%, from +39.8% in July), food (+10.5% YoY, from 9.5% in July) and durable goods (+3.9% YoY, from +3.3% in July). The deceleration in fuel prices only softened the blow slightly. Core inflation, which excludes energy and fresh food, was also up to 4.4% from 4.1% in July, signalling that the pass-through of past energy price pressures is still ongoing. Tourism-linked re-opening effect still at work It is now clear that the set of fiscal measures (temporary tax cuts, caps on parts of the energy bill) put in place by the government has so far only managed to slow down the acceleration of headline inflation. The further gain in core inflation suggests that, at least until August, underlying demand conditions were deemed by businesses as good enough to withstand more pass-throughs. This indirectly supports our view that, over the summer, the tourism-linked re-opening effect was still at work in Italy. More government action expected Looking forward, in the short-term, the dynamics of inflation seem to still be strongly linked to the vagaries of energy and, more notably, gas prices. With energy inflation still firmly in the driving seat, we expect Italian political leaders to get louder in their call for more government compensation, and the government to bow within the current fiscal framework without resorting to extra deficit. Pressure on real disposable incomes remains extremely high, with contractual wage dynamics still hovering around 1% YoY. We expect price pressures to start softening over 4Q22 as the evaporation of the re-opening effect will give way to a consumption-driven recession which will negatively affect business pricing power. After today’s release, we revise up our forecast of average annual HICP inflation to 7.7%. Read this article on THINK TagsItaly Inflation Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more  
The Euro To The US Dollar Pair: The Bullish Mood Arose

What To Expect From Pair EUR / USD? Currently Trying To Push Through The Support Level

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 01.09.2022 09:09
In the first half of Wednesday, the euro was growing against the decline of other world currencies for the second consecutive day - the bulls on the euro were still able to work out the growth of the August CPI to 9.1% from the previous value of 8.9% y/y. Data from ADP on employment in the US private sector came out in the evening - 132,000 jobs were created in August against the forecast of 300,000. The US stock index S&P 500 fell by 0.78%, the yield on 5-year government bonds increased from 3.26% to 3.35%, investors continued their weekly withdrawal from risk and the euro lost ground. The pair is currently trying to push through the support level of 1.0020, leaving under which will open the nearest target of 0.9950. Overcoming 0.9950 opens the 0.9850 target. We are also waiting for the signal line of the Marlin Oscillator to go under the turquoise line forming convergence and its decrease to the area of the pink dashed line, from which a stronger correction is likely to form. The price is still above the balance and MACD indicator lines on the four-hour chart, the Marlin Oscillator is still in the positive area, but it has a clear intention to go below the zero line and change direction. The MACD line is approaching the level of 0.9950, thus it will strengthen it, and the price, in case of overcoming this level, will receive a strong impulse to further decline. The critical level of this scenario is 1.0088, the high on August 26th.   Relevance up to 04:00 2022-09-02 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320504
The Correlation Between The EUR/USD and USDX Markets Is Directly Opposite

The EUR/USD Pair Is Swinging. Details Of What Happens.

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 01.09.2022 10:25
EUR/USD 5M The EUR/USD pair continued to move in a style already familiar over the past two weeks. The price reversed sharply again, and the movement took place inside the 0.9900-1.0072 channel. We have already said that this channel cannot be considered a horizontal channel, although formally it is just that. That movement, which we call flat, is also not really such, but has all the signs of it. Best of all, the current movement fits the description of a "swing", which is actually no better than a flat. The pair failed to settle above the level of 1.0072 for the second time, so now we can count on a certain drop in quotes. From Wednesday's macroeconomic reports, we note inflation in the European Union, which continued to accelerate and now stands at 9.1% y/y. It was after the release of this report that the euro began to appreciate, but we do not believe that these two events are connected. At this time, when it is already known about the possible tightening of the European Central Bank's monetary policy in September, the likelihood of a tougher rate hike does not increase. In regards to Wednesday's trading signals, the situation was slightly better than the day before. Mainly due to the formed area of 1.0001-1.0019. First, a sell signal was formed when the price settled below it, and then a buy signal. The sell signal turned out to be false, but the pair went down 15 points. Therefore, Stop Loss should have been set to breakeven. The long position managed to earn 30 points as the price reached the nearest target level of 1.0072. A rebound from the level of 1.0072 could no longer be worked out, since this signal was formed rather late. COT report: The Commitment of Traders (COT) reports on the euro in the last few months clearly reflect what is happening in the euro/dollar pair. For most of 2022, they showed an openly bullish mood of commercial players, but at the same time, the euro fell steadily at the same time. At this time, the situation is different, but it is NOT in favor of the euro. If earlier the mood was bullish, and the euro was falling, now the mood is bearish and... the euro is also falling. Therefore, for the time being, we do not see any grounds for the euro's growth, because the vast majority of factors remain against it. The number of long positions for the non-commercial group increased by 11,600, and the number of shorts increased by 12,900 during the reporting week. Accordingly, the net position increased by about 1,300 contracts. After several weeks of weak growth, the decline in this indicator resumed, and the mood of major players remains bearish. From our point of view, this fact very eloquently indicates that at this time even commercial traders still do not believe in the euro. The number of longs is lower than the number of shorts for non-commercial traders by 44,000. Therefore, we can state that not only does the demand for the US dollar remain high, but that the demand for the euro is also quite low. The fact that major players are in no hurry to buy the euro may lead to a new, even greater fall. Over the past six months or a year, the euro has not been able to show even a tangible correction, not to mention something more. We recommend to familiarize yourself with: Overview of the EUR/USD pair. September 1. The ECB was late, does not admit its mistakes and continues to do everything "for show". Overview of the GBP/USD pair. September 1. The pound is already falling by inertia and tends to overtake the euro in the fall against the dollar. Forecast and trading signals for GBP/USD on September 1. Detailed analysis of the movement of the pair and trading transactions. EUR/USD 1H The pair has consolidated above the trend line on the hourly timeframe, but still does not leave the feeling that the downward trend continues. At the moment, the pair is generally trading inside the horizontal channel, and this channel has already expanded to 0.9900-1.0072. If the bulls manage to settle above it, then it will be possible to count on a slight increase in the euro, but given the current "swing", there may be constant rollbacks to the downside. We highlight the following levels for trading on Thursday - 0.9900, 1.0019, 1.0072, 1.0124, 1.0195, 1.0269, as well as Senkou Span B (1.0051) and Kijun-sen (1 ,0001). There is not a single level below the level of 0.9900, so there is simply nothing to trade there. Ichimoku indicator lines can move during the day, which should be taken into account when determining trading signals. There are also secondary support and resistance levels, but no signals are formed near them. Signals can be "rebounds" and "breakthrough" extreme levels and lines. Do not forget about placing a Stop Loss order at breakeven if the price has gone in the right direction for 15 points. This will protect you against possible losses if the signal turns out to be false. The European Union will publish the unemployment rate and the index of business activity in the manufacturing sector in the second assessment for August. Both reports are insignificant. Meanwhile, we have the ISM index of business activity in the service sector in the United States, and this report may provoke a market reaction. Explanations for the chart: Support and Resistance Levels are the levels that serve as targets when buying or selling the pair. You can place Take Profit near these levels. Kijun-sen and Senkou Span B lines are lines of the Ichimoku indicator transferred to the hourly timeframe from the 4-hour one. Support and resistance areas are areas from which the price has repeatedly rebounded off. Yellow lines are trend lines, trend channels and any other technical patterns. Indicator 1 on the COT charts is the size of the net position of each category of traders. Indicator 2 on the COT charts is the size of the net position for the non-commercial group.     Relevance up to 02:00 2022-09-02 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320492
What Transactions In The EUR/USD Pair  Look Like Today?

How The EUR/USD Looks In The Short And In The Long Positions?

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 01.09.2022 11:54
Analysis of transactions in the EUR / USD pair Euro tested 0.9998 at the time when the MACD was far below zero, which limited the downside potential of the pair. Sometime later, it tested the level again, but this time the MACD line was above zero, so the upside potential was limited. This happened after the test of 1.0043. Although the sharp rise in the eurozone consumer price index came as no surprise, it hurt euro's upward outlook in the morning. Then, in the afternoon, dollar was affected by weak employment data from ADP, which suggested that the rate hikes implemented by the Fed hurt the labor market. Today, a number of reports are scheduled to be released, namely the volume of retail trade in Germany, index of business activity in the manufacturing sector and change in the unemployment rate of the eurozone. Good figures will allow buyers to try updating the weekly highs. But in the afternoon, the focus will shift to the data on US jobless claims, ISM manufacturing index and speech by FOMC member Raphael Bostic. For long positions: Buy euro when the quote reaches 1.0026 (green line on the chart) and take profit at the price of 1.0081. A rally will occur if statistics in the Euro area exceed expectations. Take note that when buying, the MACD line should be above zero or is starting to rise from it. Euro can also be bought at 1.0005, but the MACD line should be in the oversold area as only by that will the market reverse to 1.0026 and 1.0081. For short positions: Sell euro when the quote reaches 1.0005 (red line on the chart) and take profit at the price of 0.9959. Pressure will return if the Euro area releases weak economic statistics. The failure of buyers to update yesterday's highs will also end the upward correction. Take note that when selling, the MACD line should be below zero or is starting to move down from it. Euro can also be sold at 1.0026, but the MACD line should be in the overbought area, as only by that will the market reverse to 1.0005 and 0.9959. What's on the chart: The thin green line is the key level at which you can place long positions in the EUR/USD pair. The thick green line is the target price, since the quote is unlikely to move above this level. The thin red line is the level at which you can place short positions in the EUR/USD pair. The thick red line is the target price, since the quote is unlikely to move below this level. MACD line - when entering the market, it is important to be guided by the overbought and oversold zones. Important: Novice traders need to be very careful when making decisions about entering the market. Before the release of important reports, it is best to stay out of the market to avoid being caught in sharp fluctuations in the rate. If you decide to trade during the release of news, then always place stop orders to minimize losses. Without placing stop orders, you can very quickly lose your entire deposit, especially if you do not use money management and trade large volumes. And remember that for successful trading, you need to have a clear trading plan. Spontaneous trading decision based on the current market situation is an inherently losing strategy for an intraday trader.       Relevance up to 09:00 2022-09-02 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320532
Despite Declining Energy Prices, European Central Bank (ECB) Is Expected To Hike The Rate By 75bp

Despite Declining Energy Prices, European Central Bank (ECB) Is Expected To Hike The Rate By 75bp

ING Economics ING Economics 01.09.2022 12:46
Markets now favour a 75bp hike by the European Central Bank in an upcoming meeting, ignoring the drop in energy prices this week. Gilts are suffering from fears of fiscal spending and foreign outflows Bonds have their hawkish blinkers on and miss a drop in energy prices A beat in core eurozone CPI, with our economist flagging worrying signs of second-round effects from energy to goods prices, has tipped the scales in favour of a 75bp ECB hike in September. The market is now pricing 125bp of tightening over the next two meetings. Another flurry of hawkish comments, from the usual suspects Joachim Nagel and Robert Holzmann, helped convince investors that hawks are winning the front-loading hike debate. What’s more surprising is that the further rise in front-end rates and, expectedly, curve flattening, occurs while European-traded energy prices continue their decline this week. September and October are shaping up to be busy months in terms of supply With so much hawkishness priced and some relief in traded energy, it is tempting to call the peak in 10Y Bund yields, but there is another factor at play. September and October are shaping up to be busy months in terms of supply. Even if volumes do not match the previous years, we ascribe lower issuance to more difficult liquidity conditions, we would expect a greater market impact. The first eight months of the year are a case in point, despite lower volumes, supply has put greater pressure on bond yields across the credit spectrum. Bond sales should push bond yields higher in September and October Source: Bond Radar, ING Gilts have no (foreign) friends UK rates continue to rise relative to their European and US peers. As we wrote recently, divergence in energy prices and inflation explains their jump relative to USD yields. As for the faster rise than European peers, one needs to dig deeper into UK-specific problems. In an economy that is generating a greater proportion of its inflation domestically, the coming fiscal support package stands a greater chance of resulting in a more aggressive Bank of England (BoE) tightening cycle. These fears are probably exacerbated by the current leadership vacuum and the uncertainty about the extent of extra spending and tax cuts that will be unveiled. Fears of fiscal profligacy tend to hit gilts harder. Due to a (historically at least) wider current account deficit, UK markets are more sensitive to a worsening of its twin deficits. The recent decline in net overseas buying of gilts, still positive but the lowest on a rolling three-month basis since 2020 when fears of a mini run on the sterling were rife, did not help. We’re still far from the simultaneous sell-off in UK bonds, stocks, and currency that occurred in March 2020 and prompted the BoE to restart quantitative easing, but the parallel sheds an awkward light on its plan to actively sell bonds, on top of ‘passive’ balance sheet reduction. Foreign buying of gilts is at its lowest since 2020 Source: Refinitiv, ING Today's events and market views Most manufacturing PMIs released today will be second readings with the exception of the Dutch, Spanish, and Italian indices. Italian and eurozone unemployment complete the list of European releases. Supply will remain an important driver of short-term price action with Spain (3Y/10Y/30Y and linker), France (9Y/10Y/16Y), and Ireland (10Y/30Y) lined up for today. In the afternoon, US PMI manufacturing is a second reading but its ISM equivalent is a first. In addition to a decline in the headline figure, markets will look closely for a further drop in the prices paid component. Jobless claims and construction spending are the other US releases we look out for. The pre-ECB meeting quiet period starts today so we would be surprised to hear Fabio Centeno make any comment on monetary policy. The Fed’s own quiet period only starts this weekend so Raphael Bostic might try to out-hawk his colleagues. Read this article on THINK TagsRates Daily ECB Bonds Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The FED's Monetary Policy Is Favorable To The USD

The FED's Monetary Policy Is Favorable To The USD

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 01.09.2022 13:12
The US currency is in tension before the release of the US labor market report, despite the advantage over the European one. At the same time, EUR does not leave attempts to rise and catch up. Currently, the downward trend prevails on the markets, plunging the American and European currencies into pessimism. According to economists at Commerzbank, a long-term strengthening of the US labor market provides significant support to the greenback. Experts put an equal sign between a strong labor market and a growing dollar. According to preliminary estimates, the positive trend in the USD will continue as long as the Federal Reserve adheres to a tight monetary policy. This situation is favorable for the US currency, but undermines the position of the European one. The EUR/USD pair was trading at 1.0012 on the morning of Thursday, September 1, trying to get out of the current range. At the same time, analysts pay attention to the high probability of the pair moving towards parity. The greenback plunged a bit on Wednesday evening, August 31, after the release of macro statistics on the US labor market, but later won back short-term losses. U.S. private-sector jobs increased by 132,000 last month, according to Automatic Data Processing (ADP), an analyst firm. Initial jobless claims in the U.S. surged to 248,000 on Friday, according to preliminary forecasts. Data on unemployment in the country will be released on September 2. Experts expect this indicator to remain at the level of July (3.5%) and to increase the number of jobs in the non-agricultural sector of the country. Many currency strategists rely on strong US employment data and falling unemployment. They consider these indicators the most important for the Fed and its future monetary policy. However, some experts argue that the key indicator for the central bank is the level of salaries. Recall that Fed Chairman Jerome Powell and other members of the FOMC are counting on the "cooling" of the national labor market. Representatives of the Fed are trying to avoid a situation in which wage growth provokes another round of inflation. In such a situation, the increase in the number of vacancies recorded in August is a negative signal for the central bank. Against this background, the European currency seeks to maintain balance and get out of the price hole. However, its efforts are rewarded with rare bursts of recovery, and then a decline. Adding fuel to the fire is uncertainty about the European Central Bank's next steps on the rate. According to Nordea economists, next week the central bank will raise the rate by 75 basis points. The bank believes that even negative forecasts for economic growth in the region will not interfere with this. At present, the inflation rate in the eurozone remains stably high. According to current reports, inflation in EU countries reached an impressive 9.1% in August. Previously, this figure was 8.9%. The current situation undermines the euro's position, which is hardly kept afloat. According to analysts, the weakening of the euro against the dollar is due to the active tightening of monetary policy by the Fed. At the same time, the current parity between currencies may disappear when a compromise is reached in the EU on tightening the monetary policy or when inflation in the United States returns to the target of 2%. However, both situations are unlikely, experts say. According to experts, the 1:1 ratio between the dollar and the euro will remain until the EU countries begin to tighten monetary policy following the example of the United States. However, there are many pitfalls here, as the ECB needs to find a compromise between all the countries of the euro bloc. Many experts believe that by the end of 2022 the balance of power in the EUR/USD pair will change, due to which the topic of parity will be removed. Experts allow changes in the ECB's actions regarding monetary policy. The same is possible with regard to the Fed, which is worried about labor market problems and galloping inflation. According to analysts, the pair will tend to the usual ratio of 1.0500-1.1000. "In the event of a sharp turnaround, the EU economy will receive a solid bonus for the growth of exports and the economy at the expense of the US and China," the experts emphasize. Market participants are concerned about the questions: will the Fed take a decisive approach to monetary policy? Will the ECB follow suit? Many traders and investors are skeptical about the immediate prospects for the dollar and the euro. At the same time, analysts expect a reduction in key rates in the second half of 2023. The implementation of such a scenario will weaken the greenback and limit the potential for its strengthening. In the current situation, some experts believe that the markets are wishful thinking, expecting less rigidity from the Fed in the process of forming monetary policy. In this matter, much depends on the level of unemployment in the country. Excessive strengthening of the labor market in the US is pushing the central bank to tighten monetary policy as soon as possible. Fed officials are stepping up the pace of this tightening, emphasizing that they are ready to temporarily sacrifice the economy for the sake of curbing inflation. However, a few months ago they said they would try to avoid a recession. However, despite the economic upheavals, the US currency remains strong and remains competitive in the global market.       Relevance up to 08:00 2022-09-04 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320524
The Australian Dollar To US Dollar Pair: The Forecast For Next Year Is Positive

Problems Of The Euro. Will The ECB Rates Rise And How Much?

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 02.09.2022 10:01
The dollar starts September with a combative mood, trading near 20-year highs and benefiting from flows to safe havens. Fears for the fate of the global economy and the drumbeat of leading central banks are rattling traders' nerves. The greenback is also popular with investors, as they need to buy USD to maintain their margin positions in the face of declining stock indices. Players' nervousness is compounded by the fact that stocks are entering a historically weak period for the market. Since 1950, the S&P 500 has fallen by an average of 0.5% in September. This year, everything speaks in favor of repeating historical trends. Over the past two months, the volume of a net short position against S&P 500 futures has grown significantly and reached its highest value in two years. The index just ended the month with its fourth consecutive daily decline on Wednesday. Investors are still under the impression after Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell's statement last Friday that the central bank's key rate should be raised to a level that will allow inflation to be controlled, despite the risks of recession. The S&P 500 index since last Thursday, the last day before Powell's speech in Jackson Hole, lost more than 5%. "The market has received a message that the Federal Reserve is going to fight inflation at any cost. We don't think we've seen a bottom this year," strategists at Optimal Capital Advisors said. On Wednesday, the head of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Loretta Mester, continued this topic. She said that the US central bank needs to raise the base rate from the current target range of 2.25%-2.5% above 4% by the beginning of next year and leave it at this level for some time to reduce inflation. Against this background, the yield of two-year US Treasury bonds, which changes in accordance with expectations regarding interest rates, reached the highest level since the end of 2007 yesterday, rising above 3.5%. The higher yield of treasuries pushes up the dollar as investors sell debt denominated in other currencies to get a higher premium on US treasuries. "It doesn't look like they can actually offer decent resistance to the dollar, given such a gloomy global outlook," Rabobank strategists said, referring to other major currencies. "If you sell the dollar, what will you buy?" – they said. The greenback has been growing for three consecutive months, while the euro fell by 6.5% over the same period. The greenback's growth against the single currency reflects concerns that a sharp jump in energy prices in the eurozone, caused by the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, will lead to higher inflation and push the European economy into recession. "High inflation and gas supplies are still serious problems in the euro area. We think this will continue to put downward pressure on the single currency," Commonwealth Bank of Australia analysts said. As data released on Wednesday showed, inflation in the eurozone rose to a record high of 9.1% in August. This strengthened the case for further significant rate hikes by the ECB to tame it. "Before the start of the Jackson Hole symposium, the market expected the ECB to raise the rate by 1 bps by the October meeting, and since then these expectations have only increased. However, a rate hike is unlikely to strongly support the euro against the greenback, given that investors are likely to remain focused on the risks of stagflation in the eurozone and given the safe haven function for the dollar," Rabobank analysts said. "We maintain our EUR/USD target at 0.9500 for one month and still expect the widespread strengthening of the US dollar to persist over the next six months or so," they added. Another unexpected rise in inflation increases speculation about a 75 bps ECB rate hike at next week's meeting. However, MUFG Bank economists do not believe that the euro will benefit from this sharp tightening. "Market participants currently estimate a 71 bps rate hike by the ECB policy meeting on September 8, as well as the fact that it will continue to raise rates to 1.50% by the end of the year. Market expectations of a sharper tightening of policy were supported by the hawkish comments of ECB policy makers after Jackson Hole and the recent announcement of another unexpected increase in inflation in the eurozone. However, we are not convinced that a sharp tightening of the ECB's policy will support the steady growth of the euro, as the risks of recession in the eurozone remain elevated," they said. The eurozone, in case of termination of pipeline gas supplies from Russia, may face a recession in the second half of 2022, analysts at Fitch Ratings believe. "The onset of recession in the eurozone is likely in the second half of 2022, and in 2023, Germany and Italy will experience an annual decline in GDP. Economic vulnerability in the event of termination of pipeline gas supplies remains high, despite recent active efforts to diversify import sources, in particular LNG," Fitch said. With the passing of the summer heat, as well as news that European countries are filling their storage facilities at a faster pace than expected, energy prices in the eurozone have decreased from peak values. However, the European economy, and especially Germany, remain vulnerable to the onset of winter if Russia stops supplying gas, given that storage facilities cover only 25-30% of winter consumption. "It is very difficult to predict how the situation with gas will develop in the European Union in winter, since much will depend, among other things, on the weather and the volume of gas coming from alternative sources to Russia," said the deputy head of the Directorate of the European Commission for Energy in the relevant committee of the European Parliament. The European Commission expects gas prices in Europe to remain at an elevated level in the coming winter and fall in 2024-2025. "We expect that prices will remain at an elevated level in the coming winter, they will fall again in 2024-2025. But they are subject to some fluctuations," EC spokesman Tim McPhie said. Gas prices and sentiment in Europe are now undergoing a serious stress test, as the Nord Stream-1 gas pipeline closed on August 31 for maintenance. All this warns against excessive enthusiasm for the recovery of the European currency at this stage, ING strategists note. The EUR/USD pair ended Wednesday's session with an increase of 0.3%, near 1.0057, having reached a weekly high at 1.0080 during yesterday's trading. At the same time, the USD index fell by 0.1% to 108.65 points. The euro was supported by expectations that the ECB will raise the interest rate by 75 basis points next week.Meanwhile, dollar shorts were mainly caused by the rebalancing of portfolios at the end of the month, turning into consolidation. The EUR/USD pair lost its bullish momentum on Thursday and plunged by almost 150 points from Wednesday's closing levels. At the same time, the USD index rose to the highest levels since June 2002, coming close to 110. The Fed's tough stance is still working in favor of the greenback, and the energy crisis in Europe is against the euro, which has not gone away with the correction of gas prices over the past three days. "Even after reaching new records, the dollar has room for further growth, which is facilitated by the prospects of a global recession and, in particular, the energy crisis in Europe," Generali analysts said. Fears related to the global recession were exacerbated by China, which announced that Chengdu, a city with a population of about 21 million people, was put on lockdown due to coronavirus. Reflecting investors' unwillingness to take risks, key Wall Street indexes mostly declined on Thursday. Friday's US employment report for August carries risks for stocks, because if it is strong, it will increase the prospects for further Fed rate hikes. The Fed's determination is beyond doubt, since it once led the movement among major central banks to aggressively tighten monetary policy. As for the ECB, it has yet to prove that it is really ready to act, and not just talk. "The ECB has yet to convince the markets with its comments to prove that it is willing to endure economic pain in order to effectively combat price risks. Only at this point will the euro be able to really benefit from the ECB's monetary policy on a more sustainable basis," noted the strategists of Commerzbank. "In a crisis, the market is likely to sell the euro as an initial reaction due to fears of a recession. The ECB's determination to fight inflation is likely to have a positive impact on the single currency only at a later stage – if at that time the ECB really sticks to its approach. This means that euro bulls will probably have to be patient for some time," they added. "The markets are now putting in quotes an increase in the ECB rate by 167 bps in total by the end of the year. However, the recent narrowing of spreads on two-year swaps between the euro and the dollar may have already ended, and a reversal – if the ECB does not meet the new hawkish expectations embedded in prices – could send EUR/USD to new lows next week," ING analysts said. They predict that the EUR/USD pair will remain under pressure in the range of 0.9900-1.0100.         Relevance up to 22:00 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320609
The Euro To The US Dollar Pair: Traders Expect A Downward Movement

The EUR/USD Pair: The Trend Will Be Bullish Or Bearish?

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 02.09.2022 10:11
EUR/USD 5M The EUR/USD pair continued to move in the style already familiar over the past two weeks and the 0.9900-1.0072 channel. Despite the fact that there was a fall of more than 100 points during the day, the pair still remained inside the horizontal channel. Therefore, no new conclusions on the technical picture can be made now. Perhaps the euro will continue to fall (especially if the US statistics are strong), and then the pair will overcome the level of 0.9900. But until this happens, we are stating a fact - a wide flat or "swing" remains. There were only minor reports in the European Union on Thursday. The unemployment rate and the second assessment of the index of business activity in the services sector are not the data that could provoke the euro's collapse. Also not involved in the pair's decline and the ISM business activity index in the US. Thus, the macroeconomic statistics was, in contrast to the previous days of the week, but it had no effect on the course of trading. In regards to Thursday's trading signals, everything was pretty good. First, a buy signal was formed when the price settled above the extreme level of 1.0019. The upward movement did not last long and ended near the Senkou Span B line. The signal cannot be considered false, since the nearest target level was worked out. Managed to earn 7 points. The sell signal also had to be worked out, and it brought good profit to traders, since the pair, after its formation, went down about 110 points, forming another sell signal near the critical line along the way. The pair did not reach the level of 0.9900 by only a dozen points, the deal had to be closed manually in the late afternoon with a profit of at least 90 points. COT report: The Commitment of Traders (COT) reports on the euro in the last few months clearly reflect what is happening in the euro/dollar pair. For most of 2022, they showed an openly bullish mood of commercial players, but at the same time, the euro fell steadily at the same time. At this time, the situation is different, but it is NOT in favor of the euro. If earlier the mood was bullish, and the euro was falling, now the mood is bearish and... the euro is also falling. Therefore, for the time being, we do not see any grounds for the euro's growth, because the vast majority of factors remain against it. The number of long positions for the non-commercial group increased by 11,600, and the number of shorts increased by 12,900 during the reporting week. Accordingly, the net position increased by about 1,300 contracts. After several weeks of weak growth, the decline in this indicator resumed, and the mood of major players remains bearish. From our point of view, this fact very eloquently indicates that at this time even commercial traders still do not believe in the euro. The number of longs is lower than the number of shorts for non-commercial traders by 44,000. Therefore, we can state that not only does the demand for the US dollar remain high, but that the demand for the euro is also quite low. The fact that major players are in no hurry to buy the euro may lead to a new, even greater fall. Over the past six months or a year, the euro has not been able to show even a tangible correction, not to mention something more. We recommend to familiarize yourself with: Overview of the EUR/USD pair. September 2. The euro has nothing to hope for and nowhere to expect help. Overview of the GBP/USD pair. September 2. The pound continues to slide downhill. Forecast and trading signals for GBP/USD on September 2. Detailed analysis of the movement of the pair and trading transactions. EUR/USD 1H The pair continues to be inside the 0.9900-1.0072 channel on the hourly timeframe. If the bears manage to gain a foothold below it, then it will be possible to count on the resumption of the global downward trend. Otherwise, the "swing" will remain. We highlight the following levels for trading on Friday - 0.9900, 1.0019, 1.0072, 1.0124, 1.0195, 1.0269, as well as Senkou Span B (1.0051) and Kijun-sen (1.0001). There is not a single level below 0.9900, so there is simply nothing to trade there. Ichimoku indicator lines can move during the day, which should be taken into account when determining trading signals. There are also secondary support and resistance levels, but no signals are formed near them. Signals can be "rebounds" and "breakthrough" extreme levels and lines. Do not forget about placing a Stop Loss order at breakeven if the price has gone in the right direction for 15 points. This will protect you against possible losses if the signal turns out to be false. There will again not be a single important event in the European Union on September 2, but we have as many as three important reports in the United States. Of course, the NonFarm Payrolls report will be of most interest. We are waiting for the market reaction to it, two other reports (wages and unemployment) are important, but more secondary. Explanations for the chart: Support and Resistance Levels are the levels that serve as targets when buying or selling the pair. You can place Take Profit near these levels. Kijun-sen and Senkou Span B lines are lines of the Ichimoku indicator transferred to the hourly timeframe from the 4-hour one. Support and resistance areas are areas from which the price has repeatedly rebounded off. Yellow lines are trend lines, trend channels and any other technical patterns. Indicator 1 on the COT charts is the size of the net position of each category of traders. Indicator 2 on the COT charts is the size of the net position for the non-commercial group. Paolo Greco   Relevance up to 02:00 2022-09-03 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320611
The Euro To The US dollar Pair May Move Upward

The Dollar Is At Highs And The Euro Is Retreating

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 02.09.2022 11:51
The US currency is closing the week strongly higher, having confirmed its leading position once again. Its European rival is rapidly losing ground. According to analysts, EUR/USD will be retesting the parity level from time to time, which is not good for the euro. The greenback, which has reached its peak in the past 20 years, started its rally late on Thursday, September 1. On the first day of autumn, the US dollar posted the third week of continuous gains. So, on Friday, it recorded the highest value in the past two decades trading against the euro and the yen. The US dollar hit 20-year highs following the release of the manufacturing index in the US. The data showed that the ISM Manufacturing PMI stayed at the same level of 52.8 in August. Some analysts expected a drop to 52 points. Yet, as the data shows, activity in the US manufacturing sector has notably increased. The indicator has been showing strength for a long time already. In this light, the European currency is noticeably retreating against its American counterpart. The euro opened this week below the parity level but managed to win back some losses later on. In the middle of the trading week, EUR/USD recovered to 1.0078 amid lower gas and oil prices and hawkish comments from the ECB. For your reference, the euro first tested the party level in early July and then slumped to the critical level of 0.9903. The situation only worsened as EUR was struggling to leave the parity level and withstand the downward pressure. On Friday morning, September 2, the EUR/USD pair was trading near 0.9970. There is a possibility that the pair may slightly advance to 0.9980. Its breakout will open the way for sellers towards the area of 0.9800–0.9820. Monetary policy tightening of the US Federal Reserve provides significant support to the greenback. The dollar is getting stronger as the Fed's September meeting is approaching. At the same time, the European currency is in a much less favorable position as it is pressured by a protracted energy crisis in Europe. Market participants expect the Fed to maintain its tight monetary policy as this measure is necessary to tackle accelerated inflation. The rate is projected to increase by 75 basis points to 3-3.25%. On Friday, the employment data in the US will be released. Estimates suggest that the unemployment rate in August stayed close to 3.5% recorded in July. The nonfarm payroll employment has increased by 300K. The Federal Reserve will consider this data to evaluate the state of the labor market and make a decision on the key rate. Experts assume that strong macroeconomic data will greenlight the rate hike through 2023. Markets are sure that the Fed will raise the rate for the third time in September by 75 basis points. For a different scenario, the Fed will need to see a deep decline in the labor market. Yet, there are currently no signs that it is cooling down. This summer, the US economy performed relatively well despite the threat of a recession. However, analysts at Danske Bank are skeptical about the current policy of the Fed. They point out that headline inflation in the country has reached its peak while the labor market and inflationary pressure remain strong. This makes it harder for the regulator to avoid recession as this is where the US economy is headed in 2023, Danske Bank concludes.     Relevance up to 08:00 2022-09-05 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320649
The EUR/USD Pair Showed Local Speculative Interest In Short Positions Yesterday

The EUR/USD Pair Showed Local Speculative Interest In Short Positions Yesterday

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 02.09.2022 11:58
Yesterday, the single currency showed a rather impressive decline, falling below parity again. And it started during the European trading session, under the influence of the actual European macroeconomic statistics. In particular, the final data on the index of business activity in the manufacturing sector turned out to be worse than the preliminary estimate, and fell from 49.8 points to 49.6 points. While the preliminary estimate showed a decrease to 49.7 points. In addition, the data on unemployment also turned out to be not the best, although formally, it fell from 6.7% to 6.6%. But in fact, it remained unchanged, as the previous data were revised upwards. Unemployment rate (Europe): But in the United States, the final data on the index of business activity in the manufacturing sector turned out to be better than the preliminary estimate, which showed a decrease from 52.2 points to 51.3 points. In fact, it dropped to 51.5 points. However, the strengthening of the dollar is still somewhat surprising, as the data on applications for unemployment benefits do not inspire optimism. Of course, the number of initial requests decreased by 5,000. But the number of repeated requests increased by 26,000. And this is quite a lot. Number of retries for unemployment benefits (United States): It is possible that the dollar's growth is purely speculative in anticipation of today's release of the report of the United States Department of Labor. And while the unemployment rate is projected to remain unchanged, data on employment change clearly indicate a high potential for its growth. In addition, 310,000 new jobs should be created outside of agriculture, against 528,000 in the previous month. Such a strong decline in the rate of job creation clearly hints that the US labor market is losing momentum, and the situation is starting to worsen, which will be the reason for a sharp weakening of the dollar. Number of new non-agricultural jobs (United States): The EURUSD currency pair showed local speculative interest in short positions yesterday. As a result, the quote fell below the parity level, having almost reached the lower boundary of the sideways range of 0.9900/1.0050. The technical instrument RSI H4 crossed the middle line 50 from top to bottom during the downward momentum. As a result, the indicator settled in the lower area of 30/50, which indicates the downward mood of market participants. It should be noted that the signals from RSI H4 are of a variable nature due to the fact that the quote, as before, is moving within the sideways formation. MA moving lines on Alligator H4 have many intersections, which corresponds to the flat stage. Alligator D1 is directed to the downside, there is no intersection between the MA lines. This signal from the indicator corresponds to the direction of the main trend. In this case, the strengthening of the downward signal will occur at the moment when the MA (D1) lines are kept below the parity level. Expectations and prospects The convergence of the price with the lower limit of the flat 0.9900 led to an increase in the volume of long positions, as a result, a rebound appeared on the market. Despite the variable speculative interest, the quote is still in the sideways on the basis of a downward trend. Thus, the work can be built on the basis of two tactics: Rebound or breakdown relative to one or another control border. Concretize the above The bounce tactic is seen by traders as a temporary strategy. The breakout tactic is considered the main strategy because it can indicate the subsequent price move. Complex indicator analysis in the short-term and intraday periods have a variable signal due to the current flat. At this time, the indicators indicate a long position due to the price rebound from the lower border of the flat. Indicators in the medium term are focused on a downward trend.     Relevance up to 20:00 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320635
What Transactions In The EUR/USD Pair  Look Like Today?

How Can Beginner Investors Interpret The EUR/USD Pair Today?

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 02.09.2022 12:38
Analysis of transactions in the EUR / USD pair Euro tested 1.0026 at the time when the MACD was just starting to move above zero, which was a good signal to buy. It led to a price increase of around 15 pips, after which pressure returned mainly because of weak statistics on the Euro area. Sometime later, the pair tested 1.0005, but this time the MACD line was far below zero, which should have limited the downward potential. Surprisingly, the quote continued to move down, and long positions from 0.9959 brought losses. Euro fell yesterday because of the disappointing data on the volume of retail trade in Germany and index of business activity in the manufacturing sector of Germany and the whole Euro area. Similar index from the US also led to its decline as the better-than-expected figure strengthened the positions of euro sellers and dollar buyers. This led to the fall of EUR/USD to yearly lows Data on the foreign trade balance of Germany and producer price index of the eurozone are scheduled to be released today, but they are of little interest to the market. That is why the focus will shift in the afternoon, after the release of reports on the unemployment rate, change in the number of people employed in the non-farm sector, change in the average hourly wage and share of the economically active population in the US. All of these are likely to lead to a surge in volatility as their numbers are expected to be much better than the forecasts. This will prompt another decrease in EUR/USD. The opposite scenario will start an upward correction. For long positions: Buy euro when the quote reaches 0.9978 (green line on the chart) and take profit at the price of 1.0119. A rally will occur only if statistics in the US come out lower than the forecasts. Take note that when buying, the MACD line should be above zero or is starting to rise from it. Euro can also be bought at 0.9959, but the MACD line should be in the oversold area as only by that will the market reverse to 0.9978 and 1.0019. For short positions: Sell euro when the quote reaches 0.9959 (red line on the chart) and take profit at the price of 0.9919. Pressure will return if statistics in the US exceed expectations. Take note that when selling, the MACD line should be below zero or is starting to move down from it. Euro can also be sold at 0.9978, but the MACD line should be in the overbought area, as only by that will the market reverse to 0.9959 and 0.9919. What's on the chart: The thin green line is the key level at which you can place long positions in the EUR/USD pair. The thick green line is the target price, since the quote is unlikely to move above this level. The thin red line is the level at which you can place short positions in the EUR/USD pair. The thick red line is the target price, since the quote is unlikely to move below this level. MACD line - when entering the market, it is important to be guided by the overbought and oversold zones. Important: Novice traders need to be very careful when making decisions about entering the market. Before the release of important reports, it is best to stay out of the market to avoid being caught in sharp fluctuations in the rate. If you decide to trade during the release of news, then always place stop orders to minimize losses. Without placing stop orders, you can very quickly lose your entire deposit, especially if you do not use money management and trade large volumes. And remember that for successful trading, you need to have a clear trading plan. Spontaneous trading decision based on the current market situation is an inherently losing strategy for an intraday trader.     Relevance up to 08:00 2022-09-03 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320645
The EUR/USD Price Is Currently Below The Breakout Level, Does It Mean A New Wave Of Decline?

The Euro Is Under Pressure. Will It Able To Rebounds?

Kenny Fisher Kenny Fisher 02.09.2022 14:02
The euro is in positive territory today after taking a nasty spill on Thursday. In the European session, EUR/USD is trading at 0.9984, up 0.40%. Euro slides as risk appetite slides Thursday was a day to file away and move on for the euro, as EUR/USD tumbled 1.07%. The euro is under pressure from a high-flying US dollar and is having trouble staying above the symbolic parity line. A combination of solid US numbers, weak eurozone data and lower risk sentiment sent the euro sharply lower. German Manufacturing PMI dipped to 49.1, down from 49.3 in July. This marked a second straight contraction, and was the lowest level since May 2020, at the start of the Covid pandemic. It was a similar story for the eurozone Manufacturing PMI, which dropped from 49.8 to 49.6, a 26-month low. The manufacturing sector continues to struggle with supply chain disruptions and a shortage of workers, and high inflation and an uncertain economic outlook are only exacerbating matters. In the US, the ISM Manufacturing PMI held steady at 52.8, showing modest expansion. The labour market remains strong, with initial jobless claims dropping to 232 thousand, down from 237 thousand a week earlier and much better than the consensus of 248 thousand. Adding to the euro’s woes is the uncertainty over European energy supplies from Russia. Russia has shut down Nord Stream 1 pipeline for three days for maintenance, but Germany has charged that the shutdown is politically motivated and that the pipeline is “fully operational”. Nord Stream is supposed to come back online on Saturday. Even if Moscow does restore service, this episode is a reminder of Europe’s energy dependence on an unreliable Russia. Germany has greatly reduced its dependence on Russian gas, from 55% in February to just 26%, but a cutoff from Moscow would result in a shortage this winter. The week wraps up with the August nonfarm payrolls report. The consensus is for a strong gain of 300 thousand, after the unexpected massive gain of 528 thousand in July. The report could well be a market-mover for the US dollar. The markets are finally listening to the Fed’s hawkish message, and a strong reading will raise expectations of a 0.75% hike in September and likely push the dollar higher. Conversely, a weak report would complicate the Fed’s plans and raise the likelihood of a 0.50% hike, which could result in the dollar losing ground after the NFP release. . EUR/USD Technical EUR/USD is testing resistance at 0.9985. Above, there is resistance at 1.0068 There is support at 0.9880 and 0.9797 This article is for general information purposes only. It is not investment advice or a solution to buy or sell securities. Opinions are the authors; not necessarily that of OANDA Corporation or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, officers or directors. Leveraged trading is high risk and not suitable for all. You could lose all of your deposited funds.
Fed May Hike The Rate By 75bp, Oracle (ORCL) And Adobe (ADBE) To Release Their Earnings Shortly

ING Economics Team Expects Fed And ECB To Change Their Strategy A Bit As Recession Could Be More Acute Than Forecasted

ING Economics ING Economics 04.09.2022 10:43
Different shades of recession are spreading across the globe at record speed as soaring inflation, geopolitical tensions, and astronomical gas prices show no signs of abating. As central banks grapple with working out how to balance inflation and growth, there's one thing we're sure of: tough times lie ahead In this article A return to reality for Europe The colours of recession Out with the old, in with the new Looking ahead Recession’s coat of many colours ING's Carsten Brzeski on the different shades of recession spreading across the globe.   A return to reality for Europe Returning from the summer break always helps when looking at the bright side of the world's economic prospects. An often heard truism is that relaxed economists make fewer pessimistic forecasts. But when you're tracking the European and, specifically, German economies, no summer break is long enough to make short-term economic forecasts more optimistic. On the contrary, returning to Europe’s economic reality after the summer means returning to a recessionary environment, as gas prices are moving from one astronomic high to the other and will lead to unprecedentedly high energy bills over the winter. Even without a complete stop to Russian gas, high energy and food prices will weigh heavily on consumers and industry, making a technical recession – at least – inevitable. The colours of recession No two recessions, however, are the same. In fact, we are currently seeing different colours of recession across the world. The US economy has actually been in a technical recession – defined as two consecutive quarters of negative growth – but it feels nowhere close to a recession. Our chief international economist in New York, James Knightley, says weaker global growth, the strong dollar and the slowdown in the housing market on the back of higher interest rates, will make it feel like a ‘real’ recession at the turn of the year, however. In other regions of the world, we are not currently seeing fully-fledged recessions, but given that China and emerging markets need higher growth rates than the Western hemisphere, the expected sub-potential growth rates can easily feel recessionary. As a consequence, even if Europe currently remains the epicentre of geopolitical tensions, it almost looks as if recession and recessionary trends are a new export item. Out with the old, in with the new With different shades of recession spreading across the global economy, but inflation still stubbornly high as a result of post-pandemic mismatches of demand and supply as well as energy price shocks, the dilemma for major central banks is worsening: how to balance inflation and growth. In the past, the answer would have been clear: most central banks would have shifted towards an easing bias. Not this time around. We are currently witnessing a paradigm shift, recently illustrated at the Jackson Hole conference. A paradigm shift that is characterised by central banks trying to break inflation, accepting the potential costs of pushing economies further into recession. This is similar to what we had in the early 1980s. Back then, higher inflation was also mainly a supply-side phenomenon but eventually led to price-wage spirals and central banks had to hike policy rates to double-digit levels in order to bring inflation down. With the current paradigm shift, central banks are trying to get ahead of the curve. At least ahead of the curve of the 1970s and 1980s. Whether the paradigm shift of central bankers is the right one or simply too much of a good thing is a different question. What strikes me is that central bankers have implicitly moved away from measuring the impact of their policies by medium-term variables and expectations towards measuring it by current and actual inflation outcomes. This could definitely lead to some overshooting of policy rates and post-policy mistakes. Looking ahead We still think that the paradigm shift will not last that long and looming recessions will bring new pivots, forcing the Fed to stop hiking rates at the end of the year and eventually cutting rates again in 2023, and stopping the ECB from engaging in a longer series of rate hikes. Reasons for this out-of-consensus view are that we expect a more severe recession than the Fed and ECB do, and a faster drop in US inflation, in particular, than the Fed expects. Also, in a recession, any neutral interest rate is lower than in a strong growth environment. Finally (and a bit meanly), central banks have not had a good track record with their inflation predictions over the past few years. In any case, we are back from the summer break and looking ahead to a very exciting autumn. Enjoy reading and stay tuned. TagsMonthly Update   Source: ING Monthly: Recession’s coat of many colours | Article | ING Think   Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
EU Will Discuss A Historic Intervention In The Energy Market. Decoupling The Price Of Power From Surging Gas Prices

The Interruption Of Gas Supply Has Sent The Euro Downwards

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 05.09.2022 13:29
The energy crisis in the EU continues to deepen amid Russia's full shutdown of the Nord Stream pipeline over the past weekend. The interruption of gas supply has sent the euro downwards once again. Early on Monday, the European currency lost 0.5% against the US dollar and hit a 20-year low at 0.9903. EUR/USD came under pressure following Russia's decision to extend maintenance of the Nord Stream pipeline. Gazprom shut down the pipeline indefinitely, citing an oil leak in one of its turbines. EU officials believe the technical issues are merely a pretext by the Kremlin to shut down gas exports to the European Union According to the West, Moscow is trying to impose an energy blockade on the EU at the beginning of the heating season in a last-ditch attempt to force EU to relax its sanctions against Russia. At the same time, the Kremlin has blamed Western sanctions imposed on Russia for the pipeline's shutdown. Russia is claiming that sanctions prevent Gazprom from keeping the Nord Stream's turbines running. On Saturday, Gazprom tried to alleviate EU concerns by stating that the company would increase natural gas exports to Europe via Ukraine. However, the West has deemed Gazprom's promises to be unreliable. Such an increase would not fully compensate for the shutdown of Nord Stream. Furthermore, this cannot be a permanent solution. Natural gas deliveries via Ukraine could be difficult due to the ongoing conflict between the two countries. This escalation of the gas war between Russia and the EU is forcing EU policymakers to seek solutions for the supply problem. The EU is worried that the shutdown of Nord Stream could send natural gas prices in Europe even higher. On Friday, EU energy ministers are set to present emergency measures to tackle rising energy prices. These measures would likely include natural gas price caps. Furthermore, EU politicians would push for a reduction in gas demand and consumption in the European Union. The ongoing energy crisis will be in the headlines this week, dimming the short-term prospects of the euro. As the gas conflict escalates, risks of an economic slowdown would rise. With the ECB preparing for another interest rate increase, the timing for these risks could not be worse. The ECB's policy meeting is scheduled to take place on Thursday. The EU regulator is now increasingly expected to carry out more aggressive policy measures after inflation in the eurozone reached 9.1%. However, with the EU facing a renewed threat of an energy collapse, recession, and a serious financial crisis, many analysts do not believe that ECB president Christine Lagarde will take a more hawkish step than in July. Earlier, the European Central Bank increased the key rate by 50 basis points to 0.5%. At the same time, the Federal Reserve hiked the rate by 75 basis points to 2.25-2.5%. The gap between EU and US interest rates could likely increase even further in September, as traders expect another 75 bps move by the Fed in September. It would be a third such increase in a row. "Everything is pointing to a lower euro," Carol Kong, senior associate for international economics and currency strategy at Commonwealth Bank of Australia said. "We've heard a great deal of negative news about the European economy, and I think the decline in the euro can continue this week." On the technical side, EUR/USD bears hold dominance in the market. The 7-week support line at 0.9880 is acting as an additional downside filter for the pair. EUR/USD must regain 1.0100 for bullish traders to return to the market.     Relevance up to 10:00 2022-09-10 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320805
Eurozone: Retail Sales Rose Because Of Increased Food And Fuel Consumption

Eurozone: Retail Sales Rose Because Of Increased Food And Fuel Consumption

ING Economics ING Economics 05.09.2022 14:30
The small increase in retail sales at the start of the third quarter brings little optimism about the outlook. Increased food and fuel spending masked a decline in sales for all other items. Expect consumption to decline from here on due to the purchasing power squeeze that the eurozone is going through Eurozone retail sales in July Retail sales increased by 0.3% in July, which is small enough for this uptick to be in line with the downward trend seen in recent months. The peak in retail sales was in November and sales in July were about 2.5% below that level. Food and fuel caused the small increase in July as all other items saw a decline of -0.4% in terms of sales volumes. A strong increase in Germany and the Netherlands masked declines in the other large eurozone markets. Don’t expect this to be the start of a sustained upturn in sales. The outlook remains rather bleak for the months ahead as real incomes go through an unprecedented squeeze due to high inflation and lagging wages. We expect consumption to contract for the coming quarters on the back of this. For the European Central Bank though, it is definitely no smoking gun for the start of a contraction. With the September meeting coming up and October of course not long after, the doves are looking for clear evidence that the economy is moving into contraction territory. Today’s data will, in that sense, not be of much help. Still, evidence of a recessionary environment is likely to become more apparent as new data comes in. Read this article on THINK TagsInflation GDP Eurozone ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Germany: Supply Chains Issues Caused By The War, Lockdowns In China, Water Levels And Finally Energy Prices Worry Germans

Germany: What Is Third Relief Package About? Germans' Battle With Inflation

ING Economics ING Economics 05.09.2022 15:36
The German government is increasing fiscal stimulus to offset the impact of higher energy prices, but we doubt that these measures will be sufficient to prevent a recession German Chancellor Olaf Scholz What does third relief package help Germans with? The German government on Sunday announced a third relief package to cushion citizens and companies from soaring energy costs while also vowing to reform the energy market to collect windfall profits and cap prices. The measures are aimed at, at least, partly offsetting the impact of higher energy prices on low-income households but the more groundbreaking elements of the package are so far only plans and not actual measures. The announced measures in more detail: One-off financial support of 300 euro for pensioners and 200 euro for students. Extension of housing allowance from currently 700,000 recipients to around 2 million recipients and a slight increase Cuts in social security contributions for people with a monthly income below €2,000 Increase in the child allowances by 18 euro per month The reduction of the VAT to 7% for restaurants and bars, which was part of the pandemic stimulus package, will be extended Extension of furlough schemes Credit support for companies And here is what the government did not announce or plans that still need additional work: The government announced a price cap on electricity prices but this price cap is linked to a mechanism to tax windfall profits, which the government wants to be agreed at the European level. The government did not announce a price cap on gas consumption but only the start of a task force to look into this issue. There is no new incentive to use public transportation but the government offered to spend 1.5bn euro per year if the regional states find an agreement on the details of such an incentive and are willing to spend at least the same amount as the federal government. Interestingly, the government also talks about a concerted action between social partners for the next wage rounds, offering to exempt one-off payments by companies to their employees from taxes and social contributions. Hardly enough The new relief package, which comes on top of two previous packages that together amounted to 30bn euro, is obviously aimed at bringing financial relief for low-income households and the ones who will be hit the hardest by higher energy prices. How much relief this package will actually provide remains unclear. At the press conference, German Chancellor Olaf Scholz talked about a 65bn euro package. However, as so often with these kind of packages, it is unclear how the number is really calculated. In any case, while the announced package will indeed bring some relief for the financially weaker ones, it is doubtful that the package will be enough to offset the impact from higher energy bills entirely. Don't forget that 65bn euro are less than 2% of German GDP. German fiscal stimulus during the pandemic, excluding guarantees, amounted to roughly 15% of GDP.  Also, the fact that two crucial elements, price caps and a windfall profit tax, are still works in progress suggests that the full package is hardly operational this year. The fact that there is basically no support for households, which currently do not receive social transfers and that there is also little support for companies, implies that the package will probably fall short in preventing the broader economy from falling into recession. Read this article on THINK TagsGermany Fiscal stimulus Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The Weakening German Economy With No Positive Forecasts

Eurozone: German Ifo Index Decreased Once Again Hitting 88.5!

ING Economics ING Economics 25.08.2022 14:08
The list of arguments why the German economy is sliding into recession is getting ever longer. The question isn't about whether there'll be a recession but rather how severe and how long it will be Germany Economy Minister, Robert Habeck, speaking about energy at a news conference in Berlin yesterday   Germany’s most prominent leading indicator, the Ifo index, just dropped for the third month in a row, coming in at 88.5 in August, from 88.7 in July. This is the lowest level since June 2020. The positive interpretation is that the weakening of the Ifo index is slowing down. The negative interpretation is obviously that no improvement is currently in sight. Expectations remain close to their all-time lows and were only worse in December 2018 and April 2020. Earlier this morning, the details of German GDP growth in the second quarter brought some positive surprises. Growth was slightly revised upwards to 0.1% Quarter-on-Quarter, from zero in the first estimate, which finally brought the German economy back to its pre-crisis level. Private consumption surprised to the upside (+0.8% QoQ) and even more importantly was revised upwards significantly in the first quarter to +0.8% QoQ, from initially -0.1% QoQ. It was net exports and the construction sector which weighed on economic activity in the second quarter. Ifo index provides more recession evidence Looking ahead, however, it is hard to see private consumption holding up when inflation is high, energy invoices will be doubling or tripling in the coming months and consumer confidence is at all-time lows. Tuesday’s PMI readings already suggested that the economy is in contraction territory and we are afraid that this time around the indicators are right. The Germany economy is quicky approaching a perfect storm In fact, the German economy is quickly approaching a perfect storm. The war in Ukraine has probably marked the end of Germany’s very successful economic business model: importing cheap (Russian) energy and input goods, while exporting high-quality products to the world, benefitting from globalisation. The country is now in the middle of a complete overhaul, accelerating the green transition, restructuring supply chains, and preparing for a less globalised world. And these things come on top of well-known long-standing issues, such as a lack of digitalisation, ageing infrastructure, and an ageing society, to mention a few. In the coming weeks and months, these longer-term changes will be overshadowed by shorter-term problems: high inflation, possible energy supply disruptions, and ongoing supply chain frictions. In recent weeks, these shorter-term problems have become larger as low water levels and the new gas levy have added to inflation and recession concerns. There are some upsides. Surprisingly strong consumer spending in the first half of the year is one. The fact that the filling of the national gas reserves is actually ahead of schedule is another. Gas reserves are currently back to their average levels of 2016-2021. However, it remains far from certain whether gas reserves at 95% in November, as targeted by the government, can get energy consumption through an entire winter without Russian gas. There are simply too many unknowns like the severity of the winter season and the potential reductions in gas consumption by households and corporates. In any case, even without an energy supply disruption, the economy would be facing high energy costs. This alone, combined with the disruption from the low water levels for industry, ongoing geopolitical uncertainty and supply chain frictions, should be enough to push the German economy into a winter recession. Today’s Ifo index adds to the long list of evidence that the German economy is sliding into a winter recession. The question no longer seems to be if it will be a recession. The only question is how severe and how long that  recession will be. Read this article on THINK TagsIfo index Germany Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The Pressure On The Euro Clearly Persisted After The Recent Events

A Bullish Outlook For The Dollar Index. The Importance Of The Rate Hike For The Euro

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 06.09.2022 11:26
The euro seeks to wrap itself in favor of the gas problems faced by the countries of the eurozone. Most often, the EUR loses, but now there is a small chance for its short-term recovery amid a slowing USD rally. The greenback took a breather on the morning of Tuesday, September 6, to recover from a heady rally. This strategy has led to some decline from all-time highs against the euro, but it is still too early to draw conclusions. The threat of a recession looms over both currencies. Adding fuel to the fire is the high likelihood of a sharp rise in US interest rates. A short-term slowdown in the growth of the USD against key currencies and a slight subsidence against the European one was caused by expectations of statistical data on the index of business activity in the US services sector (ISM). According to preliminary estimates, this figure fell to 55.1% in August from 56.7% in July. Significant support for the US currency is provided by expectations about the rate hike by the Federal Reserve. According to analysts, the central bank is "at a low start" in this matter. At the same time, 62% of specialists include in prices its increase by an additional 0.75 percentage points, up to 3-3.25% per annum. In such a situation, the dynamics of the euro, which has to withstand the gas crisis in the eurozone, is in distress. At the beginning of this week, the euro fell by 0.7% to 0.9880. According to experts, this is the lowest figure in the last 20 years. The current energy crisis has seriously shaken the euro's position. The driver of this fall was the actions of the Russian authorities, who announced a complete suspension of the supply of natural gas through the Nord Stream pipeline. According to analysts, this will increase the economic problems of European businesses and households. Against this background, mass short positions on the European and British currencies were recorded. Experts fear that this trend will strengthen. According to currency strategists at ING Bank, "gas pressures sent the EUR/USD pair to new lows this year." Recall that earlier this week, the pair fell below 0.9900 for the first time since October 2002. According to ING economists, in the near future the EUR/USD pair will continue to fall to a new support level in the range of 0.9600-0.9650. However, this is an extremely low level for a pair, which threatens the existence of the single currency. The EUR/USD pair cruised near 0.9963 on the morning of Tuesday, September 6, winning back previous losses. However, experts warn against euphoria, as the dollar is ready to brace itself and continue its rally, displacing the euro. In such a situation, many analysts see a way out in a further increase in the key rate by the European Central Bank. However, ING economists do not agree with this, who consider it excessive to raise the rate by the central bank by 75 bps at once. According to experts, this will not solve the current problems of the eurozone. ING bank believes that the rate hike by 75 bps at the next meeting, scheduled for Thursday, September 8, is "too big a step for the ECB, which will not help the euro." You should expect it to increase by 50 bps, analysts conclude. Expectations about a sharp rate hike by the ECB (by 75 bps) are fueled by growing inflation in the euro area, the threat of a recession and disappointing macroeconomic data for the region. The icing on the cake was the deepening of the energy crisis in Europe. This undermines the demand for a single currency, experts emphasize. According to current reports, in July, retail sales in the euro area fell by 0.9% in annual terms. At the same time, markets expected a decline of 0.7%. In addition, the Sentix investor confidence index fell to -31.8 points in September from -25.2 points in August. Against this backdrop, Sentix analysts noted a "clear deterioration" in the economic situation in the eurozone, stressing that this is the lowest rate since May 2020. The US currency continues to benefit from the current situation, despite a short-term subsidence. Many experts agree on the long-term upward trend of the dollar, which has been observed since mid-2021. Experts believe that a significant divergence in the monetary strategies of central banks is a significant driver of the growth of the USD against the euro. It is noted that the ECB is still "two steps behind the Fed" in terms of raising rates. The situation was not saved even by its increase by 50 points in July. However, the ECB may revise its strategy and raise the rate at the next meeting by 50-75 bps. Another important factor in the greenback's growth is the stability of the US economy. According to analysts, the US is relatively easy to survive the gas crisis, while selling energy to Europe. In the long term, this state of affairs plays against the ECB and the countries of the European bloc, but it plays into the hands of the Federal Reserve. In such a situation, it is difficult for the ECB not only to raise, but also to keep rates at a high level, unlike the Fed. Under such a scenario, a deep economic downturn in the eurozone is possible, experts warn. The current market environment creates a bullish outlook for the dollar index (USDX). Currently, the bulls on the dollar are in a strong position, pushing the bears. However, the situation may change at any time. In the short and medium term, analysts allow it to rise to an impressive 120 points, that is, an increase of 9%. In a favorable scenario, USDX will head towards the peaks of 2001-2002. However, experts consider this option extreme, although they allow its implementation until the end of 2022.     Relevance up to 08:00 2022-09-11 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/320889
The Euro To The US Dollar: The Down Trend Will Continue - 09.09.2022

Despite The Rising Rates, What Does Change Of Interest Rate Policy Means To Eurozone

ING Economics ING Economics 06.09.2022 12:24
Eurozone government deposits at the central bank are subject to a 0% rate cap. This means hundreds of billions of euros could be shifted around. In some cases, this will reduce repo lending or boost demand for safe bonds, all exacerbating the existing collateral shortage Source: Shutterstock The return to positive policy rates will change the incentives for public sector actors in markets Germany’s and Austria’s debt agencies no longer want to lend securities against cash Exiting negative and eventually zero interest rate policies does not simply mean higher rates, but it also means some of the incentives that have dictated the basic market structure and functioning we have become accustomed to over the years of extraordinary policies will change as well. One such change has been highlighted by reports that Germany’s and Austria’s debt agencies are planning to change their repo rules. They no longer want to lend out their securities against cash, but only against other collateral. Why now? And what are the amounts involved? Government cash deposits held at central banks are remunerated at the ECB's deposit facility rate, but importantly that remuneration is capped at zero. Given the vast amounts of excess liquidity in the banking system, short term market rates have traded noticeably below the deposit facility rate. With the deposit facility rate below or at zero the incentive for governments to park cash outside of the central bank were low. But the ECB is now expected to hike the deposit facility rate at a fast pace to well above zero, possibly by 75bp already this week – and the gap to the remuneration capped at 0% will widen quickly. For the abovementioned repos that means that the economics of  government debt agency lending out a security against cash and redepositing at the ECB will change dramatically. Ballooning government central bank deposits are a problem as their remuneration is capped at 0% Source: Refinitiv, ING Germany’s government deposits at the Bundesbank amount to currently €176bn, €120bn of which from the central government Eurozone government deposits at their respective central banks amount to around €600bn currently, fluctuating between €600 to 700bn over the past year. Pre-pandemic they were in the region of €200 to 300bn, already up from around €50 to 150bn before negative interest rates (and then QE) were introduced. But it was the pandemic that has led governments to build up vast cash buffers. Remuneration at the negative depo rate did not matter, it was actually better than market rates. Germany’s government deposits at the Bundesbank amount to currently €176bn, €120bn of which from the central government. Those of Austria at the Oesterreichische Nationalbank amount to €17bn. Certainly not all of that cash originates from the debt agencies' repo operations for which the rules are now tweaked. The operations affected are those that the agencies conduct to support market functioning and market liquidity. Collateral scarcity is set to worsen It all boils down to the one burning issue, the scarcity of high quality collateral. The incentives for the German debt agency to reduce its cash holdings at the central bank are clear. The options are to either seek alternative short term investments, or –  in this special case the simpler solution – to tweak the rules to avoid generating the cash in the first place. Crucially, allowing market participants to effectively only swap securities does not add to the overall availability of government bonds as lending against cash does. While it may still ease price distortions for individual securities, the overall high price for already scarce collateral is unaddressed. As an aside, the ECB's own securities lending against cash (capped at 150bn) has gained importance since late last year, tripling in volume to now account for half of the ECB's overall securities lending. Worsening collateral scarcity is already visible in widening 2Y German swap spreads Source: Refinitiv, ING   There should be an incentive to reduce the cash holdings at the central bank Looking beyond the case where just repo rules are tweaked, there should be an incentive to reduce the cash holdings at the central bank, thus limiting those holdings to the need for safety liquidity buffers. Some countries already have institutional arrangements in place to transfer the cash back to the banking system, via daily repos or the collection of non-collateralised deposits. Those arrangements were more likely meant to smoothen the volatility of the accounts to facilitate the ECB’s liquidity management rather than to structurally reduce the vast amounts that have now accumulated. Cash could of course also be invested in high quality liquid assets - think government bills or similar assets. Alternatively, debt agencies could run down cash buffers, simply by issuing less government paper. All of this to the same effect that the market's collateral availability for is further reduced. This is already visible in the stretched bond valuations (2Y German Schatz in the chart above) relative to swaps. Read this article on THINK
Eurozone's GDP Is Forecasted To Hit 2.1% For 2022, Inflation Expectations May Be Corrected

Eurozone's GDP Is Forecasted To Hit 2.1% For 2022, Inflation Expectations May Be Corrected

Jing Ren Jing Ren 06.09.2022 15:01
We can expect quite a bit of volatility on Thursday, when the ECB will make its rate decision. Surveyed economists are almost evenly split on whether there will be a 50bps or a 75bps hike. The market has priced in around 68bps, implying a favoritism towards the tighter policy. However, it's still possible to get a bounce in the currency, since the move isn't fully priced in. Though part of the expectations could be influenced by an unusually large amount of debt issuance by Eurozone countries this week. Italy, Austria and Germany are all issuing bonds before the ECB meeting, which could put upward pressure on yields, and obscure how the market is really feeling about what will happen with the rate decision. Putting the pieces together There are good fundamental arguments for both positions, as might be expected. On the one hand, EU inflation is likely to keep rising after Russia cut off supply of gas through Nord Stream 1. Tighter policy might be justified in an attempt to prevent higher energy costs from spreading through the economy. On the other hand, that very possibility of higher energy costs could justify keeping rates on hold. Higher energy costs would contribute to a recession, thus lower prices, and less need for the ECB to take as aggressive attitude. However, the reality is inflation isn't on the "supply side" (that is, because of increased funds) as much as it is due to factors outside the ECB's control. The ECB doesn't control the price of energy, nor the flow of gas from Russia, nor the shutdown of factories because of higher energy and transportation costs. The ECB has one tool, and just because it might not be the most appropriate for the situation, it doesn't mean they won't use it, anyway. The market reaction There is wide expectation that the Fed will also hike rates by 75bps. Meaning that if the ECB goes for only 50bps, the gap between the Euro and the dollar will once again widen. That would put downward pressure on the EURUSD. On the other hand, a 75bps hike would simply maintain the gap, which could help the EURUSD, but would have less buoyancy. The other factor to keep in mind is that ECB staff projections are announced at the same time. This could have a bigger impact on the currency, since forward expectations of rate hikes weigh more on institutional investors. Lately, there have been several ECB members emphasizing that they will push for tighter policy. Some have gone so far as to suggest that rates could go above the "neutral rate" in order to tamp down inflation. That would imply at least another 175bps of hikes over the next four meetings. The future is what matters Those aggressive stances might be tempered if the staff forecasts cut the outlook for the shared economy's growth for this year and next. The last projections showed that the bank expected 2.1% growth for this year, and is likely to be revised downward. Inflation was also projected to be at 2% for next year, something that is likely to be revised upwards.
Living In Times Of Price Caps. Electricity Price Cap - What Does ING Economics Keep An Eye On

Euro Is Awaiting Thursday! Is There Any Chance For ECB (European Central Bank) To Change Its Stance?

ING Economics ING Economics 07.09.2022 11:14
Thursday’s ECB rate decision is apparently on a knife edge. This should also tell you that there is a very broad range of possible hike outcomes by year end, do not dismiss anything. The upshot is higher front-end rates volatility, especially with the explosion in swap spreads and collateral shortage ECB doves out in force, but enough to force a 50bp hike? Despite the ECB’s pre-meeting quiet period being in full force, it seems doves have mounted a last minute, and coordinated, push to a more gradual approach to policy normalisation. Fabio Centeno, Yannis Stournaras, and to a lesser extent Martins Kazaks and Edward Scicluna, seem to push back against the barrage of hawkish comments that have coloured ECB communication in the past few weeks. The disagreement on the face of it does not seem insurmountable, but they highlight that whatever policy decision is taken tomorrow, a 75bp hike is not yet set in stone. A 75bp hike is not yet set in stone The main takeaway from our four doves (for the purpose of these comments at least) was that they did highlight the policy trade-off between fighting inflation and safeguarding growth, something the hawks, and other central banks such as the Fed, have been at pains to dismiss. Ultimately ECB forward guidance, for it hasn’t abandoned the idea of steering market expectations despite what it says, should be taken with a pinch of salt by markets. In addition to a wide range of opinions today, the range of possible economic outcomes into this winter should in turn convince markets that it is very difficult to predict ECB policy even a few meetings into the future. 2Y implied EUR rates volatility has overtaken 10Y Source: Refinitiv, ING Don't get wedded to any specific ECB outcome, and expect more volatility The implications are twofold. First, even out-of-consensus calls like our own for only another 75bp of hikes this year, are far from impossible if the economy takes a turn for the worse between this meeting and the next. On the other hand, more hikes than the roughly 150bp priced for this year, let alone next, are definitely possible, especially if governments expand support measures for energy consumers. The second implication is that rates volatility at the short-end is definitely warranted, more so than for longer maturities which should rely mostly on much slower-moving estimates for long-term equilibrium interest rates. Rates volatility at the short-end is definitely warranted, more so than for longer maturities On the topic of front-end volatility, the explosion in swap spreads is gaining more attention in rates markets. The 0% rate cap on government deposits at the ECB (or at national central banks) means some national treasuries have suspended their repo operations as they will soon get a much worse rate on their deposits than the interest rates they are paying on repos. Similarly, we expect national and sub-national treasuries to prefer parking their excess cash into short-term securities rather than earning nothing by placing it at their domestic central banks. Both effects are worsening the collateral shortage, and widening swap spreads. The collateral shortage is widening the gap between bond yields and swap rates Source: Refinitiv, ING US 10yr continues to journey towards 3.5% The rise in US market rates and the pressure it places on wider core rates continues. The US economy is clearly refusing to lie down, with yesterday's ISM number a reminder of this. The structure of the curve has moved from being a bullish one for bonds to quite a neutral one (positioning of the 5yr to the curve). But it has not quite switched to outright bearish positioning. This continues to imply that a rise in the 10yr back towards the high hit at 3.5% in June remains on the cards, but not necessarily a big rise beyond that (so far). The US economy is clearly refusing to lie down The 2yr is already there (at 3.5%), and the market has 3.75% to 4% as an end game for the Federal Reserve. The risk going forward is that the market decides to edge this even higher. The fact that risk assets are lower will not worry the Fed here. The key thing is whether the system can take it. Based off where banks can print commercial paper as a spread over the risk free rate, the system remains in good shape (as that spread remains exceptionally low). The rising rates environment has more to go, and that also forms the background music as the ECB faces its own key decision on Thursday. Today's events and market view Bank of England governor Bailey and other members will appear in front of the treasury select committee. It is hard to imagine the questions and answers not being heavily interpreted by markets with an eye on next week’s policy meeting. Germany will add to long-end supply this week with a 15Y auction worth €1.5bn. This is the last scheduled euro sovereign bond sale of the week so we expect the long-end to trade better afterwards. Eurozone Q2 unemployment and GDP will feel dated and the economic focus will likely be on US July trade in the afternoon instead. There is a long list of Fed speakers today including Thomas Barkin, Loretta Mester, and Lael Brainard. Read this article on THINK
The Current Picture Of Economies In The Old Continent

The Current Picture Of Economies In The Old Continent

Conotoxia Comments Conotoxia Comments 01.09.2022 14:45
Among economic data, PMI indexes can often be the fastest to show the current picture of the economy. Unlike GDP data, for which one has to wait a long time, preliminary PMIs are published the same month they refer to, with final readings appearing as early as the following month. The donwward of Europe's largest economy The data released today seem to indicate a deterioration in the economy, which could have an impact on stock indexes. For Europe, data from its largest economy, Germany, may be important. The S&P Global/BME Germany Manufacturing PMI for August was revised downward to 49.1 points from a preliminary reading of 49.8 points, indicating a second consecutive month of decline in factory activity. According to this report, there is a sustained decline in new orders, which seemed to affect production levels and slowed the pace of job creation in factories. On the positive side, companies may have been less pessimistic about the outlook than a month earlier, although concerns about high inflation, uncertainty in the energy market and the risk of an economic slowdown still seem to persist. PMI for the eurozone The index for the eurozone as a whole was also at a lower level. The S&P Global Eurozone Manufacturing PMI was revised down to 49.6 points in August from an initial estimate of 49.7 points. Manufacturing declined at a similar pace to July, when the deceleration was the strongest since May 2020. New orders once again fell sharply. Weak demand conditions were a major drag on manufacturers in August, reflecting deteriorating purchasing power across Europe with high inflation. In response to the deteriorating economic outlook, manufacturers further reduced their purchasing activity, the report said. The Lowest Poland Manufacturing PMI In Poland, the situation does not seem optimistic either. Poland Manufacturing PMI was the lowest since 2020. The S&P Global Poland Manufacturing PMI fell to 40.9 in August from 42.1 in July, below market forecasts of 41.8 points. The reading pointed to the fourth consecutive month of declining factory activity and was the worst since May 2020, as both production and new orders fell sharply. On the price front, costs and fees continued to rise at a slower pace, although high inflation continues to erode purchasing power, with sales from both domestic and international sources falling, a statement to the publication said. So it seems that economies still may not have reached their, which may also translate into a lack of bottoms in stock market indices. The following indicated their drop today, with Germany's DAX losing 1.7 percent from the start of the session until 10:55 GMT+3, France's CAC40 losing 1.68 percent and Italy's FTSE MIB losing 1.5 percent.
The EUR/USD Pair: Trend Analysis And Review Of Investment Scenarios

What Can We Expect From Euro (EUR) And ECB (European Central Bank)? Check Out This Detailed Comment By ING Economics

ING Economics ING Economics 07.09.2022 15:02
We expect the European Central Bank (ECB) to hike by 50bp at its September meeting. Markets are pricing in 66bp at the moment, and the consensus is leaning in favour of 75bp, so we see some downside risks for the euro. At the same time, short-term rates have not had much of an impact on EUR/USD lately, and the energy crisis should remain the key driver Four scenarios ahead of the September ECB meeting As discussed in our September ECB preview, policymakers in Frankfurt will likely have to choose between a 50bp or 75bp rate hike this week. We think that a 75bp move would be too hard to digest for the dovish front within the Governing Council, and our call is for a 50bp move. That said, we cannot fully exclude a 75bp hike aimed at frontloading tightening before a recession hits this winter. In our “Crib Sheet”, we analyse four potential scenarios on a scale from dovish to ultra-hawkish and what this can mean for EUR/USD and EUR rates, taking into account the size of the rate hike as well as the ECB’s stance on inflation, growth and quantitative easing/tightening (QE/QT). EUR and ECB crib sheet Source: ING Downside risks for EUR... The market’s pricing for the meeting is currently around 66bp, which by itself suggests some negative reaction by the EUR if our 50bp call proves correct. Much of the market reaction will also be driven by any hints about future policy. Since a reiteration of the meeting-by-meeting, data-dependent approach seems quite likely, markets will have to derive their rate path expectations from the updated staff projections on growth and inflation. In particular, the size and length of a winter recession will be key, and should it become the ECB’s baseline scenario, then some dovish re-pricing across the curve might occur and weigh on the euro. Comments about the euro weakness are likely to be a theme too and could have some impact on the EUR. However, verbal protest about a weak currency is now the norm among many central banks and has notably yielded very few results. Unless any reference to FX interventions is made, markets may not read too much into currency-related comments. ... but the ECB is a secondary driver now Regardless of the direction of the EUR reaction on Thursday, there’s a non-negligible chance that the FX impact will prove rather short-lived. This is because EUR/USD has been blatantly unreactive to ECB rate expectations lately, as the energy crisis has continued to drive the majority of the pair’s moves. In the chart below, we show how the two-year EUR-USD swap rate differential – a gauge of ECB-Fed monetary policy divergence expectations – has moved significantly in favour of the EUR recently, but EUR/USD has failed to follow it higher. EUR/USD hasn't followed the short-term rate differential higher Source: Refinitiv, ING   In our EUR/USD short-term fair value model, the short-term rate differential now has a smaller beta than relative equity performance, which is a gauge of diverging growth expectations and is more directly impacted by the energy crisis. This also means that the short-term undervaluation in EUR/USD has shrunk to around 3-4% from the 5-6% peak seen two weeks ago.   We expect the energy story to return firmly to the driving seat for EUR/USD after the post-ECB reaction. Barring a very hawkish surprise, this should keep EUR/USD below parity and prevent it to reconnect with the more supportive rate differential. The 0.98-0.99 area could prove to be a near-term anchor for EUR/USD, but a further worsening of the energy crisis and/or further dollar strengthening can trigger a drop to the 0.96-0.97 area. Read this article on THINK TagsEURUSD Energy crisis ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Further Volatility Expansion On Market Is Expected

The United Kingdom's Anti­-inflation Plan, The ECB Doesn't Expect A Recession In The Eurozone

Saxo Bank Saxo Bank 09.09.2022 09:19
Summary:  The USD weakened sharply overnight, led by a tumbling USDJPY on comments from Bank of Japan governor Kuroda after he met with Prime Minister Kishida. Risk sentiment was buoyant yesterday and overnight on the weaker US dollar and after the ECB hiked by 75 basis points as most expected, the most in the central bank’s history. EURUSD has backed up well above parity again ahead of an EU Summit that will attempt to outline a common approach to soaring power/gas prices amidst limited supplies ahead of winter.   What is our trading focus? Nasdaq 100 (USNAS100.I) and S&P 500 (US500.I) US equities continued to rally yesterday with S&P 500 futures pushing above the 4,000 level to close at 4,005, and even more impressively momentum is extending this morning in early European trading hours. The rally still seems to be mostly technically driven, but there was some support for US equities in yesterday’s initial jobless claims data showing little negative pressures in the US labour market. After the US market close, DocuSign shares rose 17% as the technology company delivered a strong result and raised its outlook breathing some fresh optimism into the technology sector. The next big event for US equities is the US August CPI report on Tuesday. Hong Kong’s Hang Seng (HSIU2) and China’s CSI300 (03188:xhkg) Hang Seng Index soared 2.6% today, snapping a six-day losing streak, following August inflation data in China surprised on the downside and raised hope for more monetary easing to come from the Chinese policymakers. Mega-cap internet stocks strongly, Meituan (03690:xhkg) +5.5%, Netease (0999:xhkg) +4.8%, Baidu (09888:xhkg)+3.6%, Alibaba (09988:xhkg) +3.1%, Tencent (00700:xhkg) +1.7%. One notable underperformance in the internet space was Bilibli (09626:xhkg/BILI:xnas) which plunged nearly 17% after reporting a larger than expected loss in 2Q2022 on the deterioration of gross and operating margins. Ahead of the mid-autumn festival, catering stocks gains, Jiumaojiu (09922:xhkg) +6.7%, Haidilao (06862:xhkg) +2.6%. Chinese property names rallied, led by Country Garden (02007:xhkg) which jumped 14%. CSI 300 climbed 1.3%, led by property names, financials and dental services.  USD broadly weaker after ECB meeting and USDJPY correction overnight Bank of Japan Governor Kuroda commented on the undesirability of sharp JPY moves in comments overnight after meeting with PM Kishida. This took USDJPY back below 143.00 two days after it nearly touched 145 in its latest surge higher. The threat of intervention may not hold the JPY higher for long if global yields continue higher again. Elsewhere, the USD was sharply lower despite a solid bounce-back in US treasury yields and EURUSD traded well north of parity again after an initially choppy reception of the expected 75-basis point hike from the ECB and President Lagarde’s press conference. The action took EURUSD back to the cusp of important resistance in the 1.0100 area, which has been the resistance of note for more some three weeks. The move was supported by surging European short yields, although the energy/power situation will remain the focus for the euro. Crude oil (CLV2 & LCOX2) The oil price weakness seen this week following the break below $91.5 and $85 in Brent and WTI may still end up being a temporary development with the dollar weakness seen overnight, especially against the yen and euro, adding a bid back into the market. Dr. Copper meanwhile is recovering as demand from China show signs of improving. Potentially a signal to the energy market of not getting too carried away by a temporary lockdown related slowdown in Chinese demand. However, with US implied gasoline demand falling below 2020 levels last week, a potential recovery above the mentioned level is likely to be muted. Focus on Putin and his threat to cut supply to nations backing the US-led price cap on crude sales and OPEC+ which may intervene should price weakness persist. Copper (COPPERUSDEC22) Copper trades higher with the futures market signaling increased tightness, primarily due to a pickup in Chinese demand and imports, which despite lockdowns has seen the infrastructure push ramping up. In addition, a lower-than-expected August CPI and PPI may give the PBoC more room to ease conditions. Exchange monitored inventory levels has dropped to an 8-month low at a time where mining companies struggle to meet their production targets with top producer Chile seeing its exports slump to a 19-month low due to water restrictions and lower ore quality. Speculators have increased short positions in recent weeks as a hedge against recession and China weakness, and they are now increasingly exposed. Support at $3.54 and for a real upside and trend reversal to occur the price needs to break above $3.78/lb. Bitcoin This morning Bitcoin rose the most in more than a month, surpassing the psychological $20k level and now trading at around $20.5k. This is despite a report published by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy yesterday, stating that cryptocurrencies make a significant contribution to energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the US, and that they recommend monitoring and potential regulation. It could have a significant impact on cryptocurrencies using the proof-of-work consensus mechanism such as Bitcoin. US Treasuries (TLT, IEF) US Treasury yields bounced back toward the top of the range after the previous day’s decline, keeping the attention on the cycle highs for the 10-year yield near 3.50%. The treasury sell-off was sparked around the time of Fed Chair Powell firm comments on fighting inflation, which sent 2-year treasury yields some 8 basis points higher. The latest weekly jobless claims figures was out around the same time and showed the lowest level of claims since late May. What is going on? The ECB hiked interest rates by 75 basis points This was a unanimous decision of the ECB governing council. This is a major signal sent to the market. The move was aimed to catch up with the neutral rate (though the ECB acknowledges they don’t know where the neutral rate is). The ECB also revised upward its inflation forecasts sharply (from 6.8 % to 8.1 % this year). Growth forecasts were also revised. But the ECB still doesn't expect a recession in the eurozone (GDP growth expected at 0.9 % versus prior 2.1 % this year). During the press conference, ECB president Christine Lagarde opened the door to further interest hikes. This is no surprise. She committed to keep hiking over 2, 3 or 4 meetings (including today’s). This implies further hikes until October, December or February, followed by a pause. Forward guidance is not dead, finally. Expect a 50 basis point hike in October, in our view. The German 2-year Schatz yield rose over 20 basis points to yesterday to close at new cycle high of 1.33%. The United Kingdom announces a massive anti­-inflation plan Yesterday, the new prime minister Liz Truss announced a major plan to fight the high cost of living related to energy prices. There are five major measures: 1) capping household bills at £2500 per month. 2) a new £40bn liquidity scheme with the Bank of England for energy firms who need it. 3) no further windfall tax (a tax levied on an unforeseen or unexpectedly large profit). 4) speeding up the deployment of clean energy but at the same time granting more oil and gas licenses for North Sea. and 5) commitment to net zero 2050. If this is successful, it means that the peak in UK inflation will certainly be lower (by 4-5 %). So far, the government believes that the peak could be between 13 and 18 %. This is a broad range. But it shows the level of uncertainty about the short-term economic outlook. Finally, Truss refused to evaluate the total cost of the new plan. Several experts believe it could be close to £150bn, over 6% of UK GDP. DocuSign shares up 17% in extended trading Q2 revenue was much better than expected but confirmed its fiscal year outlook on revenue which was better than the underlying consensus which was clearly below analyst estimates. The company sounded optimistic on the billing outlook, which is the key indicator for future growth, and as a result traders pushed shares 17% higher in extended trading. Apple warned by US government against using Chinese chips Congressional Republicans including Senator Marco Rubio of the Senate intelligence committee and Michael McCaul of the House foreign affairs committee expressed alarm at reports that Apple cited Yangtze Memory Technologies as one of its suppliers of flash memory chips used for phone storage.  “Apple is playing with fire”, said Senator Rubio, threatening scrutiny of the company. Apple said it would not sell iPhones using the chips outside China. What are we watching next? EU Summit today on emergency intervention in power markets and possibly to cap imported Russian gas prices The EU may be able to cap electricity prices, but this could mean a shortage of output relative to demand, i.e., forcing rationing over the winter period when demand surges. Russian leader Putin has called any plan to cap prices “another stupidity”. Swedish election this weekend Swedes go to the polls on Sunday, with the right populist Sweden Democrats expected to become the second-largest political party. In the past, the right-leaning main parties have been unwilling to consider alliances with the Sweden Democrats, as their positions were seen as too extreme, but this has made for very fragile left-coalitions in recent years because of the lack of a sufficient plurality in Parliament. Earnings to watch Today’s key earnings release is Kroger which is a large US supermarket chain with a strong competitive position in the current inflationary environment. Analysts are expecting revenue growth of 8.6% y/y in FY23 Q2 (ending 31 July) and lower operating margin expected due to rising input costs. Today: Kroger Earnings releases next week: Monday: Oracle Tuesday: DiDi Global Wednesday: Inditex Thursday: Polestar Automotive, Adobe Economic calendar highlights for today (times GMT) 0930 – ECB President Lagarde to speak 1230 – Canada Aug. Net Change in Employment / Unemployment Rate 1600 – US Fed’s Waller (Voter) to speak 1600 – US Fed’s George (Voter) to speak Follow SaxoStrats on the daily Saxo Markets Call on your favorite podcast app: Apple  Spotify PodBean Sticher         Source: https://www.home.saxo/content/articles/macro/market-quick-take-sep-9-2022-09092022
Europe: French Business Climate Went Down! How Much? Check It Out!

France: Industrial Production Decreased | French GDP (Gross Domestic Product) Is Expected To Decline

ING Economics ING Economics 09.09.2022 16:41
Industrial production fell sharply in July and remains 6% below its pre-pandemic level. Industry will probably contribute negatively to French economic growth in the third quarter   French industrial production fell by 1.6% over one month in July, and the decline was widespread across all branches of the industrial sector. Only construction increased its output by 0.5% over the month. Over a year, industrial production is down by 1%. It is therefore a difficult start to the third quarter for the French industrial sector, which is clearly suffering from the disruption of supply chains due to the war in Ukraine, lockdowns in China, and rising energy prices. Looking ahead, the contraction in order books since February, the high level of stocks of finished goods, high uncertainty, high energy and raw material prices, and potential disruptions to energy supplies do not point to an improved outlook for the French industrial sector. Indeed, the business climate indicator for the sector fell further in August. It is therefore likely that industry will make a negative contribution to French economic growth in the third quarter. The industrial sector only represents 15% of total French value added (20% if we include construction), so the weakness of industry is not enough in itself to conclude that the macroeconomic outlook for the next few quarters has worsened. However, the outlook is not much more favourable in the services sector. The deterioration in purchasing power caused by inflation, the decline in consumer confidence, and the fading of the positive effects of the post-pandemic reopenings will weigh on the dynamism of services in the coming months. As a result, the question is no longer really whether France and other European countries are heading for recession, but rather how fast the recession is coming. Given the developments of the last few weeks, there is a risk that French GDP growth will turn negative in the third quarter. We expect growth of 2.2% for the whole of 2022 and -0.2% for the whole of 2023.  Read this article on THINK TagsIndustrial Production GDP France Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The US Dollar Keeps Growing And Is It Thanks To Fed's Policy?

The US Dollar Keeps Growing And Is It Thanks To Fed's Policy?

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 12.09.2022 11:17
Former US Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers said dollar has more room to grow given a number of fundamentals behind it. He expressed skepticism over the effectiveness of any intervention to turn the tide for yen. In a statement, Summers stressed that the US has a huge advantage in not being dependent on "outrageously expensive foreign energy." He noted that Washington has taken a stronger macroeconomic response to the pandemic, and that the Federal Reserve is now tightening monetary policy faster than its counterparts. So far, the Bloomberg Dollar Spot Index is up about 11% year-to-date, hitting a record high this week. Dollar reached its highest level against euro since 2002 on Tuesday - 0.9864, while it reached the highest level since 1998 against yen on Wednesday - 144.99. Yen has depreciated faster than euro, causing a more-than-19% fall against dollar this year. This prompted increased warnings from Japanese officials, with Bank of Japan Governor Haruhiko Kuroda meeting with Prime Minister Fumio Kishida to discuss latest concerns on Friday. Japanese officials are not ruling out options as market participants discuss the chances of intervention to buy yen and sell dollars. Japan hasn't done this since 1998, when it teamed up with the US - while Summers was deputy treasury secretary - to help stem the yen's fall. For its part, the US Treasury Department insisted on its unwillingness to support any potential intervention in the forex market to stop the depreciation of yen. Summers stressed that the more fundamental issue for yen is the interest rate adjustments in Japan, both short-term and long-term. The Bank of Japan maintained a negative short-term interest rate, as well as a 0.25% yield cap on 10-year bonds.  Go to dashboard       Relevance up to 14:00 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/321348
The Unchanging Situation Of Bitcoin And Yesterday's The Fed Decision

The EUR/USD Pair Has A Chances For A Further Recovery

InstaForex Analysis InstaForex Analysis 13.09.2022 12:23
Euro is likely to rise as risk appetite will surge if inflationary pressure in the US eases. The lower figure will also affect the Federal Reserve, weakening its grip on rate increases. Recently, US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen expressed optimism for a slowdown in inflation, but warned that uncertainty remains. The core CPI for August is expected to show growth, while the overall index is likely to slow to 8.1%. Inflation has been a major concern for the Biden administration as high gas and food prices earlier in the year have seriously undermined the president's popularity and the Democrats' prospects for maintaining control of Congress. Also, in response to high price increases, the Federal Reserve has been raising interest rates rapidly. They hope that such a move will curb further price hike as quickly as possible, so there were several increases of 75 basis points at once at the past meetings, and the same is expected in September. But even if inflation slows in August, the Fed is unlikely to step back from its mandate as the central bank intends to do whatever it takes to bring inflation under control. Talking about EUR/USD, there are chances for a further recovery, but only in the event that inflation eases in the US. If the opposite happens, euro will decline, and buyers will have to cling to 1.0100 in order to bring back the possibility of a rally. The nearest target will be resistance level of 1.0150, the breakdown of which will open a direct path to 1.0190 and 1.0240. The farthest target will be the level of 1.0270. In case of a further decrease and breakdown of 1.0100, sellers will become more active in the market, which could push the quote to 1.0030 and 1.0000 In terms of GBP/USD, a lot depends on the 17th figure as its breakdown creates a pretty good chance for a larger upward correction. That will open a direct route to the highs at 1.1750 and 1.1790. The farthest target will be 1.1840. But if pressure on the pair returns, buyers will have to do everything to stay above 1.1660, otherwise, there will be another major sell-off towards the level of 1.16130. Its breakdown will open a direct path to 1.1580 and 1.1550.   Relevance up to 08:00 2022-09-14 UTC+2 Company does not offer investment advice and the analysis performed does not guarantee results. The market analysis posted here is meant to increase your awareness, but not to give instructions to make a trade. Read more: https://www.instaforex.eu/forex_analysis/321521
"Fed Listens" Take Place Today! In Europe, Eurozone PMIs Are Released And ECB's, Bundesbank's And SNB's Members Are Set To Speak

Could The Situation On Energy Market Make Rates Go Down?

ING Economics ING Economics 13.09.2022 15:22
Falling energy prices are a key downside risk to European rates. Hawkish central banks and fiscal policy mean a further jump in yields is possible, but this may bring forward the bond rally we expected for late 2022/early 2023 Eye-popping volatility in energy markets is making short-dated rates and bonds even more difficult to trade The plunge in traded energy prices continues The European Union’s proposed energy market reforms and consumption curbs managed to draw a line under the continued climb in both traded gas and electricity prices. The impact has been nothing short of spectacular, especially as it occurred in the midst of a gas supply worst-case scenario, a total cut-off of the Nord Stream flow. We’ve highlighted recently that a continued fall in energy prices constitutes a key downside risk to European rates, in EUR and GBP. That downside is growing. From the point of view of rates markets, the (tentative) reaction has been as close as one would expect from energy policy goldilocks: not too effective economically that it provides cover for central banks to hike further, but effective enough that it does allow energy prices to drop. Of course, between the two effects, the drop in energy prices may well be the one that impacts rates the most, but this is far from a foregone conclusion. Central banks are now overtly worried about second-round effects, a de-anchoring of inflation expectations, and a broadening of inflation – all of which could justify a continued hawkish tone. Short EUR rates haven't yet reacted to lower gas prices Source: Refinitiv, ING Bonds remain shaky but the next rally may occur earlier than 2023 The main takeaway from last week’s European Central Bank meeting for EUR rates markets is an updated, more hawkish, ECB reaction function. The ECB seemed to have taken, indeed ripped, more than a few pages out of the Fed’s book. The upshot is that markets should, and have to a large extent already, concluded that euro for euro, the central bank will deliver more monetary tightening if energy prices rise further. We’ll leave it to our economics colleagues to discuss whether this is the right approach going into a recession but we share their scepticism.  The upshot is that a jump in energy prices has so far impacted rates to the upside, but not to the downside. Nothing is set in stone and the further they drop, the more likely they are to take rates with them. For now, we stick to our view, also motivated by the strength of the US economy, that upside risk dominates for bonds. This is particularly true in an environment of fragile investor sentiment and rising supply, as is customary in September and October. If confirmed, however, the milder inflation picture would precipitate the rally in government bonds we expect for late 2022/early 2023, through 1% in the case of 10Y Bunds. Falling inflation expectations are another challenge to the Fed's hawkish stance Source: New York Fed, ING Today's events and market view Today’s eurozone CPI are final readings of the August prints, and so are less liable to surprise, but the forward-looking Zew components should be a good indicator of market sentiment. It’ll be interesting if the drop in traded energy prices and various measures taken to shield customers register in the market mood. Judging from the improvement in risk assets this month, we would say they have. The main fireworks will come from the US, however, with the August CPI report. Consensus, and our own view, is for a drop in headline inflation, but a rebound in core. How markets react to these mixed messages is an important question for rates over the coming weeks and months. The Fed has pushed aggressively against any dovish interpretation of one CPI report in July so a drop in rates and re-steepening of the curve would be notable. The drop in consumer inflation expectations published by the New York Fed yesterday was another challenge to its hawkish stance. The National Federation of Independent Business small business optimism completes the list of releases. Primary market activity will take the form of 3Y/7Y/24Y auctions in Italy, a 2Y debt sale in Germany, and of dual-tranche 5Y/30Y European Union syndication which could raise upwards of €10bn. In the US session, a 30Y T-bond auction is a highlight. Note that 3Y and 10Y auctions already took place yesterday, meaning a lot of supply pressure has already been felt in USD markets, however demand was soft.  Read this article on THINK TagsRates Daily Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
United Kingdom: Inflation Is Expected To Hit 11%

Eurozone: Industrial Production Declined By Over 2% And May Decrease Further

ING Economics ING Economics 14.09.2022 13:15
July industrial production fell by 2.3%, reversing gains made in May and June. While Irish volatility plays a large part in recent swings, we expect manufacturing weakness to continue over the second half of 2022 – mainly due to an environment of slowing new orders and continued supply-side problems For the months ahead, the outlook remains relatively bleak While we saw a decent end to the second quarter for manufacturing, data confirms that industrial production in July was flat at best, and is likely to decline. Looking at production categories, capital goods production saw a large drop which was mainly related to big Irish swings that relate to large multinational activity. Other goods saw more of a mixed bag in terms of production. Durable consumer goods production was down, which is also true for intermediate goods. Non-durable consumer goods production partially reversed a large decline seen in June. In terms of the larger countries, Germany, Spain and France all saw production decrease significantly in July. Italy and The Netherlands saw a modest improvement at the start of the third quarter. For the months ahead, the outlook remains relatively bleak. The energy crisis has started to result in production cuts across the eurozone for the most gas-intensive producers and other supply problems have faded but not disappeared. On top of that, demand for goods is also weakening. Businesses reported that new orders slowed again in August, which means that inventories are rising and backlogs of work are falling. Overall, this suggests modest production expectations for the second half of the year in manufacturing for now. Read this article on THINK TagsGDP Eurozone Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Europe: Eurozone PMI Declined. Is Recession Here? | Euro: Next ECB Move Could Be A 75bp Hike

"(...) ECB is now expected to introduce a tiered remuneration for EL."

ING Economics ING Economics 15.09.2022 16:17
The European Central Bank (ECB) could once again engage in banks' profit micro-management by remunerating some bank liquidity at 0% instead of the deposit rate. We review potential deposit and reserve tiering designs and how they may impact money markets Abundant excess liquidity will become very expensive for the ECB As things stand, the ECB is set to pay an increasing amount of interest to banks on the nearly €4.6tr of excess liquidity (EL) outstanding in the banking system. At current deposit rates, this means €34.5bn per year, and if rates reach the 2.5% peak implied by the swap curve in 2023, this would amount to €115bn. Whilst this is sure to be portrayed, unfairly, in some corners as a subsidy to banks, this is not necessarily a problem insofar as banks' financing costs are also increasing. The problem is that a large part of this excess liquidity was provided by the ECB in past targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTRO) loans to banks, with a lower average interest rate. As a result, the ECB is now expected to introduce a tiered remuneration for EL. There is a precedent. In 2019, it shielded part of banks' excess reserves held at the ECB (which are part of EL alongside deposits placed at the ECB) from negative interest rates. Back then, the goal was to prevent a collapse in banks' profitability; this time around, the aim is the opposite, but the practice of micro-managing banks' profitability is the same. The distribution of excess liquidity and TLTRO balances is different across countries Source: ECB, ING Potential designs The form tiering of EL takes depends on the ECB's goals. If the aim is simply to offset the benefit offered through TLTROs and to incentivise banks to repay the existing balance, then remunerating a proportion of EL proportional to TLTRO balances at 0% is the way to go. If, on the other hand, the ECB is digging in for a long period of high-interest rates, and high excess liquidity (the remaining portion is explained by the size of its bond portfolio, which will take a lot longer to unwind than TLTRO balances) then it may opt to remunerate at 0% either: a) A multiple of banks' required reserves. This is what it did in 2019, with the multiple set at 6x or b) A proportion of banks’ EL. For instance, calculated as an average balance over a certain period. In the example below, we calibrate the threshold calculated for each method so to the total amount of EL earning 0% at the eurozone level is the same as for a 6x multiple of required reserves, currently around €960bn. In effect, option one is more targeted and limited in time to the maturity of existing TLTRO facilities with the latest due to be repaid in 2024. We surmise this would be an effective way to force TLTRO repayments, but there is a simpler way to achieve this: change TLTRO terms. This is also the option that would cause the most disruptions. For instance, Italian banks would see a greater proportion of their EL earning 0%. Within the two sub-options a) would make the size of EL earning 0% proportional to a bank’s balance sheet, which is not ideal in cases where reserve requirements are not proportional to the EL deposited at the ECB. Similarly to option one above, Italian banks would see a greater portion of their EL earning 0%. Sub-option b) on the other hand would make sure that all banks see the same proportion of their EL remunerated at 0% and at the deposit rate. The ECB will want to make sure the deposit rate remains the marginal policy interest rate The impact on EUR rates and money markets will depend on how the tiering system is structured. We’re assuming that in all cases the amount remunerated at 0% will be fixed (according to one of the methods described above) and that any EL above that threshold will earn the deposit rate. In practice, however, tiering will lower the average rate earned by banks on their EL. It is also possible that for some banks, 0% becomes the marginal interest rate if their EL is below the threshold. An alternative design would be to remunerate at the deposit rates EL until a certain threshold. If that threshold is high enough, it would act as an incentive to repay TLTRO without causing a fall in money market rates. Some tiering options could have disrupting effects on Italian money markets Source: Refinitiv, ING The higher the threshold, the greater the disruptions The most important factor is thus how many banks will find themselves with EL at the ECB below or close to the threshold. In a ‘prudent’ scenario, tiering is designed so that the vast majority of banks find themselves with EL balances well above the threshold. This, however, would only partially reduce the ECB’s interest rate bill. In a more aggressive case, a high threshold means many banks would find that they are earning 0% on all of their EL balance, thus creating an incentive to reduce them by any economical means possible. Irrespective of how it is calculated, the ECB can set the tiering threshold at three levels. 1 High threshold (above €2.5tr of EL earning 0%) At the eurozone level, if the threshold is set so high that more banks have EL below the threshold than above, we would expect a collapse in money market rates as banks rush to lend their cash and disincentivise depositors from parking cash at their branches. This makes this option unlikely as it would amount to a net easing of financial conditions, which is contrary to the ECB’s goal. Even if EL currently stands at €4.6tr, TLTRO repayments could make that figure shrink over the next two years to closer to €2.5bn. 2 Balanced threshold (€1.5-2tr) In a more likely scenario where, at the eurozone level, a majority of banks have EL above the tiering threshold, then the main focus should be on country differences. It may well be that some countries find themselves net lenders of reserves (if they are below the threshold and so earn 0% on all their balances) and others net borrowers (if they are above and so earn the deposit rate on any additional reserves). This would mean a fall in effective interest rates in some countries, for example, Italy and Spain, and a rise in others, for instance, Belgium and Luxembourg. This should be reflected primarily in the fall in repo rates in net lender countries if their domestic banks own a large amount of government debt, but also in a relative fall in deposit rates. If, as we expect, the net lender banks are in Italy and Spain, this could go some way towards helping sovereign spreads tighten but could also disrupt the functioning of the repo market. On the whole, we are unsure if this benefit would offset the operational problems caused to banks. The impact on net borrower countries should be less marked as we assume the marginal deposit rate for domestic banks wouldn’t be altogether different from the prevailing deposit and repo rates. Interestingly, the effect could be to ease financial conditions, on a relative basis, in peripheral countries. 3 Low threshold (below €1.5tr) In the case where the vast majority of banks have EL well above the threshold, including within each country, then we expect the risk of a rush to lend out liquidity less likely. This scenario is the most probable in our view as it would result in less money market disruption but would also mean a lower reduction in the ECB’s interest rate payments to banks.   Depending on how it is calculated, especially if as a multiple of required reserves, then a fall in EL would also bring more banks closer to the threshold. This would imply reducing the multiple over time. Greater impact on ESTR only after larger declines of excess liquidity Source: ECB, ING Money market rates and excess liquidity The overnight rate (ESTR) which is the ECB’s starting point to assess whether its key rates are properly transmitted was pushed below the deposit facility rate when large excess reserves became a feature of the ECB’s policy implementation. Historical relationships between the level of overnight rates and the level of excess reserves suggest that the average rate will only very slowly rise from its depo floor as excess liquidity melts away (by about 1.5bp per €1tr reduction) and take off at an accelerated speed when levels drop below €500bn. At €4.6tr, that seems far away, but also keep in mind the Fed’s experience that the market's plumbing has changed in such a way that these levels have likely shifted higher. The most recent push lower in overnight rates and more significantly also longer unsecured rates such as the 3m Euribor fixing came with the large liquidity injections of the TLTROs amid the pandemic. To the degree that they have changed the short-term funding mix of banks affecting the fixing, repayment of these operations could see this effect unwind again. It is one reason why the impact on overnight rates could already occur at still overall higher levels of excess liquidity than past experience would suggest.         Read this article on THINK TagsRepo rate Interest rates ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
EUR/CHF To Go Down? Swiss National Bank Decides On Interest Rate On Thursday!

EUR/CHF To Go Down? Swiss National Bank Decides On Interest Rate On Thursday!

ING Economics ING Economics 21.09.2022 15:23
The Swiss National Bank holds its quarterly monetary policy meeting on Thursday and is expected to hike its policy rate by around 75bp to 0.50%. The SNB has also been using FX policy to fight inflation. We think the SNB will continue to guide EUR/CHF lower at a rate of around 5-7% a year, in order to keep its real exchange rate stable A stable real exchange rate requires a lower EUR/CHF Since June, the SNB has been very clear: after years of fighting deflation, inflation is currently considered too high and the SNB wants to react by raising its interest rate. Inflation reached 3.5% in August, well below the inflation rate of neighbouring countries but above the SNB's target of between 0% and 2%. Since the SNB is no longer fighting an overvalued exchange rate, but rather believes that a strong Swiss franc is favourable, it can now raise interest rates quickly, without necessarily following the ECB's moves. This is why it moved ahead of the ECB by raising rates by 50 basis points in June. There is little doubt that the SNB will raise rates by at least 75 basis points at Thursday's meeting. A 100 basis point hike like the Riksbank did is not out of the question, especially since the SNB only meets once every quarter, unlike other central banks. However, with inflation "only" at 3.5% in Switzerland and the strength of the Swiss franc allowing imported inflation to fall, 100 points might be a bit too much of a move, so a 75 basis point hike remains more likely. Turning to FX matters, EUR/CHF has come steadily lower since June. Driving this trend have been some key statements from the SNB that (i) it wants to keep the real exchange rate stable and (ii) it will intervene on both sides of the FX market. In practice, we think that means the SNB wants to manage EUR/CHF lower. At the heart of the story is a more hawkish SNB and its view that as a small, open economy a weaker real exchange rate is inappropriate right now in that it would be providing additional stimulus at a time when CPI is overshooting its close to, but not over 2% target. What does a stable real exchange rate mean in practice? In the case of Switzerland, where inflation amongst its trading partners is running nearly 5% higher than in Switzerland, it means that a nominal 5% appreciation of the trade-weighted exchange rate is required to keep the real exchange rate stable. Rather conveniently, as we show in our chart below, the recent bout of Swiss franc strength leaves the trade-weighted Swiss franc around 5% stronger on a year-on-year basis. Not being a member of the G20 grouping allows Switzerland a little more latitude with its FX practices. And the above analysis suggests the SNB may be running a managed float here. With huge FX reserves of close to CHF900bn, the SNB remains a major force to be reckoned with and has the firepower to back up this managed float. Hence the remarks from the SNB in June that it planned to intervene on both sides of the market. Like the Czech National Bank (CNB), the SNB has previously experimented with FX floors, but the managed float underway today is more akin to activity undertaken by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) which more formally uses a managed float in its monetary toolkit. CHF: Real exchange rate stable YoY, nominal exchange rate +5% YoY Source: SNB, ING forecasts What does this mean for EUR/CHF? Away from the arcane concept of a real or nominal trade-weighted Swiss franc, what does this all mean to the more familiar EUR/CHF? First, it is important that the two biggest weights in the trade-weighted Swiss franc are: (i) the euro at 51% and (ii) the dollar at 23%. If the SNB wants a stronger trade-weighted Swiss franc then clearly EUR/CHF and USD/CHF are going to have to play their parts. Secondly, we have said that the SNB wants to keep the real CHF stable. In the chart above, we present our inflation forecasts, which show the inflation differential staying at around 5% into 2Q23 and only dropping back to zero by end 23. The argument then is that the SNB continues to manage the Swiss trade-weighted index firmer at this 5% year-on-year rate into next Spring before slowing the pace of appreciation. Thirdly, there are many moving parts in the trade-weighted exchange rate, but crucially our stronger dollar view means that USD/CHF may not come lower as the SNB wishes. This places a greater burden on the adjustment in EUR/CHF. Assuming USD/CHF stays flat, EUR/CHF would need to fall at around a 7% per annum rate to get the trade-weighted CHF stronger by 5%. Bringing it all together – and assuming that the SNB has the wherewithal to control EUR/CHF – we can argue that to achieve its objective of keep the real exchange rate stable according to our inflation forecasts, the SNB could be managing EUR/CHF on something like the following path… 4Q22 0.93, 1Q23 0.92, 2Q23 0.91 and flat-lining near 0.90 in 2H23. Read this article on THINK Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
Italian Election 2022: Why Is It Crucial In Terms Of Finance?

Italian Election 2022: Why Is It Crucial In Terms Of Finance?

Jing Ren Jing Ren 23.09.2022 11:43
Italy goes to the polls on Sunday, with results expected through the course of the morning of Monday. Polls are showing a pretty strong lead for Brothers of Italy leader Meloni, so it's unlikely there will be a surprise with the electoral outcome. But, as far as the markets are concerned, a shift in the way Italy's finances are managed and how it relates to the Euro could have an impact on the shared currency. Who is likely to be PM is known, but who will be finance minister is another open question. While the three right-wing parties held a joint rally to close their election campaigns, the leaders put on a show of unity ahead of the polls. But there are still rifts between them, and some rather large egos that have already brought a previous government to a premature end. Negotiations for who will hold which ministers could end up showing the first cracks in the coalition. Possible implications Italy is the third largest economy in the Eurozone, but it's the largest in the so-called "periphery". Italy has had a contentious relationship with Brussels for years now, particularly over the issue of government finance and debt levels. The financial situation has only gotten worse since covid, and accelerated with the gas crisis. For now, the issue of how much money the Italian government is spending has been mostly ignored, but not forgotten. Particularly, apparently, among Italians who seem to be warming to the Euro-skeptic rhetoric of the lead candidate, Meloni. Italy has a debt-to-GDP ratio of 150%, nearly triple the Maastricht criteria. Italy's government deficit last year was 7.2%, well over double the 3% limit of the criteria. Italy's ability to service that debt is increasingly questionable as interest rates rise, particularly in the periphery. Meloni's confrontational attitude towards the EU is likely to further inflame tensions around the issue as well. Will the past repeat? The Euro entered a period of crisis in 2011 driven by a collapse in Greek debt payments. There was substantial worry that it would spread through other periphery countries, such as Spain and Italy. However, a rescue plan was cobbled together, some banks suffered, and the situation was barely averted. The Euro crisis included recessions and talk of a potential breakup of the shared currency. Read next: Cryptocurrency: Bitcoin Up, Ethereum Price Found Support, Ripple Price (XRP) Jumped! | FXMAG.COM Italy's economic situation is worse now than it was then. But not as bad as Greece was at the time. Greek debt lost investor confidence when it was revealed that authorities had misstated economic figures. And the debt-to-GDP ratio was 175%. Greece was not kicked out of the shared currency despite failing almost all the Maastricht criteria, which ultimately allowed more confidence in periphery countries' loose financials. On the other hand, it apparently also meant that the financial leaders of those countries felt they could get away with less fiscal discipline. To the point that even some Italian banks have not been provisioning as much as their American, UK and even German peers under the expectation that if the economic situation gets really bad, they will get a bailout. Just like in 2011. While Meloni might be able to convince voters to support her, getting investors to have confidence in Italy might be a whole different question. And by extension, investors might be worried that at least some of the problems from 2011 might appear again.
Europe: Eurozone PMI Declined. Is Recession Here? | Euro: Next ECB Move Could Be A 75bp Hike

Europe: Eurozone PMI Declined. Is Recession Here? | Euro: Next ECB Move Could Be A 75bp Hike

ING Economics ING Economics 23.09.2022 14:35
The third decline in a row for the eurozone PMI indicates that business activity has been contracting throughout the quarter. This confirms our view that a recession could have already started. At the same time, the August increase in energy prices is translating into stronger price pressures Shoppers in Lubeck, Germany German Composite PMI Reached 45.9 The third quarter clearly marks a turning point in the eurozone economy. After a strong rebound from contractions caused by the pandemic, the economy is now becoming more severely affected by high inflation both at the consumer and producer level. Led by Germany, which saw its composite PMI drop to 45.9 in September, the eurozone saw its composite PMI fall to 48.2. Both services and manufacturing output are well below 50 at 48.9 and 46.2, respectively, signalling broad-based contracting business activity. Read next:  The manufacturing sector is bearing the brunt of the problems. Supply chain problems still disturb production, but weaker global demand has caused backlogs of work to fall as new orders are decreasing quickly. Incidental production stoppages due to high energy costs are also adding to declining production in the sector. But with the tourism season behind us, there are few opportunities left for any marked catch-up effects in the eurozone economy. That has pushed the services PMI deeper into negative territory as consumers are starting to become more cautious in spending as energy bills rise across the monetary union. Overall, the view of a eurozone economy moving into recession seems confirmed by the gloomy September PMI survey. European Central Bank May Hike The Rate By 75bp The surge in gas and electricity prices in August is now leading to further price pressures emerging for businesses in September, even though other costs have been moderating due to weakening global demand. This confirms the stagflationary environment that the eurozone is currently in. The ECB has made clear that it will continue to hike in a determined manner for the short-run, as it tries to battle stubbornly high inflation. A 75 basis point hike in October is therefore definitely on the table, despite a weakening economy. Read this article on THINK TagsInflation GDP Eurozone ECB Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more
The Fed Is Ready To Sacrifice Growth And Employment To Bring Inflation Back To Its Target

The Fed Is Ready To Sacrifice Growth And Employment To Bring Inflation Back To Its Target

ING Economics ING Economics 24.09.2022 08:51
US housing numbers will be the main focus next week. The Federal Reserve's aggressive hiking cycle has already sent the market into recession and more pain lies ahead. In the eurozone, we expect higher inflation at 9.6% while unemployment should remain unchanged In this article US: Housing numbers in focus after Fed's 75bp hike Eurozone: Higher inflation and unemployment rate expect to remain at 6.6% Source: Shutterstock US: Housing numbers in focus after Fed's 75bp hike After the Federal Reserve's 75bp rate hike this week and Jerome Powell's commentary that the Fed is prepared to sacrifice growth and jobs to ensure inflation comes back to target, we will be hearing from many more officials over the coming week. Given the strong clustering of near-term forecasts for rates and the economy, the hawkish comments hinting at another 75bp hike in November are likely to come thick and fast. The data calendar is fairly light with housing numbers the main focus. With mortgage rates now firmly above 6%, more pain is coming in the housing market where a recession is already underway. Eurozone: Higher inflation and unemployment rate expect to remain at 6.6% Inflation figures will be the main focus in the eurozone. Expect higher prices partly due to Germany's decision to end cheap public transport tickets as of 31 August. The key will be to see how much other categories have continued to rise. Separately, unemployment data is out on Friday. We expect the labour market to have remained very tight with the unemployment rate stable at a historic low of 6.6% despite business hiring expectations sliding in recent months. Key events in developed markets next week Source: Refinitiv, ING This article is part of Our view on next week’s key events   View 3 articles TagsFederal Reseve Eurozone   Disclaimer This publication has been prepared by ING solely for information purposes irrespective of a particular user's means, financial situation or investment objectives. The information does not constitute investment recommendation, and nor is it investment, legal or tax advice or an offer or solicitation to purchase or sell any financial instrument. Read more